all.bib

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@comment{{Command line: /usr/local/bin/bib2bib -ob all.bib ais.bib beinhofer.bib bennewitz-ais.bib burgard-nonais.bib grzonka.bib hess_first_author.bib joho-ais.bib kretzschmar.bib kuemmerl.bib lau.bib meyerdelius.bib muellerj.bib omartine.bib pfaff.bib plagemann.bib roewekaemper-firstauthor-ais.bib rottmann.bib sprunk-firstauthor-ais.bib stachniss-ais.bib steder.bib sturm.bib wurm.bib}}
@inproceedings{hess13icra,
  author = {J{\"u}rgen Hess and Maximilian Beinhofer and Daniel Kuhner and Philipp Ruchti and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Poisson-Driven Dirt Maps for Efficient Robot Cleaning},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  month = {May},
  year = 2013,
  address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/hess13icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{meyerdelius12aaai,
  author = {Meyer-Delius, D. and Beinhofer, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Occupancy Grid Models for Robot Mapping in Changing Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the AAAI~Conf.~on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  address = {Toronto, Canada},
  month = {July},
  year = {2012},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/meyerdelius12aaai.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{tipaldi11irosWS,
  author = {Tipaldi, G. and Meyer-Delius, D. and Beinhofer, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Simultaneous Localization and Dynamic State Estimation in Reconfigurable Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ IROS Workshop on Metrics and Methodologies for Autonomous Robot Teams in Logistics (MMART-LoG)},
  year = {2011},
  month = {October},
  address = {San Francisco, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/tipaldi11irosWS.pdf}
}
@techreport{meyerdelius11alufr,
  title = {Grid-Based Models for Dynamic Environments},
  author = {Meyer-Delius, D. and Beinhofer, M. and Burgard, W.},
  institution = {Dept.~of Computer Science, University of Freiburg},
  month = {July},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://tr.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/reports/report265/report00265.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{meyerdelius11icra,
  author = {Meyer-Delius, D. and Beinhofer, M. and Kleiner, A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Using Artificial Landmarks to Reduce the Ambiguity in the Environment of a Mobile Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Shanghai, China},
  month = {May},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {5173-5178},
  doi = {10.1109/ICRA.2011.5980111},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/meyerdelius11icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{hornung09iros,
  author = {A. Hornung and H. Strasdat and M. Bennewitz and W. Burgard},
  title = {Learning Efficient Policies for Vision-based Navigation},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2009,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/hornung09iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{pretto09icra,
  author = {A. Pretto and E. Menegatti and M. Bennewitz and W. Burgard and E. Pagello},
  title = {A Visual Odometry Framework Robust to Motion Blur},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2009,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/pretto09icra.pdf}
}
@phdthesis{bennewitz04phd,
  author = {Bennewitz, M.},
  title = {Mobile Robot Navigation in Dynamic Environments},
  school = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  year = {2004},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/thesis_bennewitz.pdf}
}
@incollection{bennewitz05geriatrie,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Serviceroboter f{\"u}r den {P}flegebereich},
  booktitle = {Handbuch Geriatrie. Lehrbuch für Praxis und Klinik},
  publisher = {Deutsche Krankenhaus Verlagsgesellschaft mbH},
  year = {2005},
  editor = {A. M. Raem and H. Fenger and G. F. Kolb and T. Nikolaus and L. Pientka and R. Rychlik and T. V{\"o}mel},
  address = {D{\"u}sseldorf},
  note = {In German}
}
@article{bennewitz05ijrr,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cielniak, G. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Learning Motion Patterns of People for Compliant Robot Motion},
  year = 2005,
  journal = {The International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)},
  volume = {24},
  number = {1},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz05ijrr.pdf}
}
@article{bennewitz02ras,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Finding and Optimizing Solvable Priority Schemes for Decoupled Path Planning Techniques for Teams of Mobile Robots},
  year = 2002,
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  volume = {41},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz02ras.pdf}
}
@article{beetz01Iis,
  author = {Beetz, M. and Arbuckle, T. and Belker, T. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.~B. and Fox, D. and Grosskreutz, H. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {Integrated Plan-based Control of Autonomous Service Robots in Human Environments},
  year = 2001,
  journal = {IEEE Intelligent Systems},
  volume = {16},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/beetz01Iis.pdf}
}
@article{thrun00ijrr,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Beetz, M. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.~B. and Dellaert, D. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Rosenberg, C. and Schulte, J. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {Probabilistic Algorithms and the Interactive Museum Tour-Guide Robot Minerva},
  year = 2000,
  journal = {International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)},
  volume = {19},
  number = {11},
  pages = {972-999},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/thrun00ijrr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{axenbeck08humanoids,
  author = {T. Axenbeck and M. Bennewitz and S. Behnke and W. Burgard},
  title = {Recognizing Complex, Parameterized Gestures from Monocular Image Sequences},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids)},
  year = 2008,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/axenbeck08humanoids.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{cielniak03ecmr,
  author = {Cielniak, G. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Robust Localization of Persons Based on Learned Motion Patterns},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  year = 2003,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/cielniak03ecmr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{cielniak03ijcai,
  author = {Cielniak, G. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Where is ...? {L}earning and Utilizing Motion Patterns of Persons with Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
  year = 2003,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/cielniak03ijcai.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz03icra,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Adapting Navigation Strategies Using Motions Patterns of People},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2003,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz03icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz02iros,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Using {EM} to Learn Motion Behaviors of Persons with Mobile
  Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2002,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz02iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz02icra,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Learning Motion Patterns of Persons for Mobile Service Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2002,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz02icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz01iros,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Exploiting Constraints During Prioritized Path Planning for Teams of Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2001,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz01iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz01ki,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Constraint-based Optimization of Priority Schemes for Decoupled Path Planning Techniques},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the 24th German / 9th Austrian Conference on Artificial
Intelligence},
  year = 2001,
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz01ki.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz01icra,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Optimizing Schedules for Prioritized Path Planning of Multi-Robot Systems},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2001,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz01icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{thrun99ki,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Rosenberg, C. and Roy, N. and Schulte, J. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {MINERVA: A Tour-Guide Robot that learns},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the the 23rd German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI) },
  year = 1999,
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/thrun99ki.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{thrun99icra,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Rosenberg, C. and Roy, N. and Schulte, J. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {MINERVA: A Second-Generation Museum Tour-Guide Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 1999,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/thrun99icra.pd}
}
@inproceedings{thrun99fsr,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Rosenberg, C. and Roy, N. and Schulte, J. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {Experiences with two Deployed Interactive Tour-guide Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics (FSR)},
  year = 1999,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/thrun99fsr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz08rssws,
  author = {M. Bennewitz and T. Axenbeck and S. Behnke and W. Burgard},
  title = {Robust Recognition of Complex Gestures for Natural Human-Robot Interaction},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the Workshop on Interactive Robot Learning at Robotics: Science and Systems Conference (RSS)},
  year = 2008
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz04soave,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Pastrana, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Active Localization of Persons with a Mobile Robot Based on
  Learned Motion Behaviors},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the third Workshop on Selforganization of Adaptive Behavior (SOAVE)},
  year = 2004,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz04soave.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz03vspets,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Cielniak, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Utilizing Learned Motion Patterns to Robustly Track Persons},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Joint IEEE International Workshop on Visual Surveillance and Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance (VS-PETS)},
  year = 2003,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz03vspets.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz02robotik,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Learning Motion Patterns of Persons for Mobile Service Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the VDI-Conference Robotik 2002 (Robotik)},
  year = 2002
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz01sirs,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Finding Solvable Priority Schemes for Decoupled Path Planning Techniques for Teams of Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the 9th International Symposium on Intelligent Robotic Systems (SIRS)},
  year = 2001,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz01sirs.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz00ams,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {An Experimental Comparison of Path Planning Techniques for Teams of Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Fachgespr{\"a}che Autonome Mobile Systeme (AMS)},
  year = 2000,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz00ams.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz00sirs,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Coordinating the Motions of Multiple Mobile Robots Using a Probabilistic Model},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the 8th International Symposium on Intelligent Robotic Systems (SIRS)},
  year = 2000,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz00sirs.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz00ecaiws,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A Probabilistic Method for Planning Collision-free Trajectories of Multiple Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Workshop ``Service Robotics - Applications and Safety Issues in an Emerging Market'' at the 14th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI)},
  year = 2000,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/bennewitz00ecaiws.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{Bee97Act,
  author = {Beetz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox, D.},
  title = {Active Localization for Service Robot Applications},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the 5th Symposium for Intelligent Robotics Systems
                  (SIRS'97), Stockholm, Sweden},
  year = 1997
}
@article{Bee98Int,
  author = {Beetz, M. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Integrating Active Localization into High-level Robot
                  Control Systems},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {205-220},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Blanco02Image,
  author = {Blanco, J. and Burgard, W. and Sanz, R. and Fernandez, J.L.},
  title = {Fast Face Detection for Mobile Robots by Integrating Laser
                  Range Data with Vision},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Conference on Advanced Robotics
                  (ICAR)},
  year = {2003}
}
@article{Buh95Mob,
  author = {Buhmann, J. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox,
                  D. and Hofmann, T. and Schneider, F. and Strikos, J. and
                  Thrun, S.},
  title = {The Mobile Robot \mbox{R}hino},
  journal = {AI Magazine},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {31-38},
  month = {},
  volume = {16},
  number = {2}
}
@inproceedings{Bur00Col,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Moors, M. and Fox, D. and Simmons, R. and
                  Thrun, S.},
  title = {Collaborative Multi-Robot Exploration},
  year = {2000},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)}
}
@incollection{Bur02Col,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Moors, M. and Schneider, F.},
  title = {Collaborative Exploration of Unknown Environments with Teams
                  of Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Advances in Plan-Based Control of Robotic Agents },
  editor = {Beetz, M. and Hertzberg, J. and Ghallab, M. and Pollack,
                  M.E.},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = {2002},
  series = {LNCS},
  volume = {2466}
}
@mastersthesis{Bur86PRO,
  author = {Burgard, W.},
  title = {{PROSPERT}: An Expert System for the Syntesis of Chemical
                  Processes},
  school = {University of Dortmund, Department of Computer Science},
  year = 1987,
  note = {In German}
}
@phdthesis{Bur91Goa,
  author = {Burgard, W.},
  title = {Goal-directed Forward Chaining for Logic Programs},
  school = {University of Bonn, Department of Computer Science},
  year = {1991}
}
@incollection{Bur95Goa,
  author = {Burgard, W},
  title = {Goal-directed forward chaining: A tuple-oriented bottom-up
                  approach},
  editor = {Beierle, Ch. and Pl{\"u}mer, L.},
  booktitle = {Logic Programming: Formal Methods and Practical
                  Applications},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science B.V.},
  year = {1995}
}
@inproceedings{Bur96Est,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Hennig, D. and Schmidt, T.},
  title = {Estimating the Absolute Position of a Mobile Robot Using
                  Position Probability Grids},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = 1996
}
@inproceedings{Bur96Kno,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox, D. and Heidelbach,
                  M. and Kappel, A.M. and L{\"u}ttring\-haus-Kappel, S.},
  title = {Knowledge-enhanced {CO}-monitoring in Coal Mines},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Ninth International Conference on Industrial \&
                  Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence \&
                  Expert Systems},
  year = 1996
}
@inproceedings{Bur96Log,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox, D. and Heidelbach,
                  M. and Kappel, A.M. and L{\"u}ttringhaus-Kappel, S.},
  title = {Logic Programming Tools Applied to Fire Detection in
                  Hard-coal Mines},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Joint International Conference and Symposium on
                  Logic Programming},
  year = 1996
}
@inproceedings{Bur96Pos,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Hennig, D. and Schmidt, T.},
  title = {Position Tracking with Position Probability Grids},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the First Euromicro Workshop on Advanced Mobile
                  Robots},
  year = 1996,
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press}
}
@inproceedings{Bur97Act,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Active Mobile Robot Localization},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Joint Conference on
                  Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
  year = 1997
}
@inproceedings{Bur97Fas,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Hennig, D.},
  title = {Fast Grid-Based Position Tracking for Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the German Conference on Artificial
                  Intelligence (KI), Germany},
  year = 1997,
  publisher = {Springer Verlag}
}
@misc{Bur97Mus,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Cremers, A. B. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel,
                  D. and Lakemeyer, G. and Schulz, D. and Steiner, W. and
                  Thrun, S.},
  title = {The {{\em RHINO}} museum tour-guide project},
  howpublished = {{\tt http/www.cs.uni-bonn.de/\symbol{126}rhino/tourguide}},
  year = {1997}
}
@inproceedings{Bur97aAct,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Active Mobile Robot Localization by Entropy Minimization},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Second Euromicro Workshop on Advanced Mobile
                  Robots},
  year = {1997},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press}
}
@inproceedings{Bur98DML,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Derr, A. and Fox, D. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Integrating global position estimation and position tracking
                  for mobile robots: the {D}ynamic {M}arkov {L}ocalization
                  approach},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Bur98Int,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel,
                  D. and Lakemeyer, G. and Schulz, D. and Steiner, W. and
                  Thrun, S.},
  title = {The Interactive Museum Tour-Guide Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = {1998}
}
@inproceedings{Bur98Mus,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel,
                  D. and Lakemeyer, G. and Schulz, D. and Steiner, W. and
                  Thrun, S.},
  title = {The Museum Tour-Guide Robot {RHINO}},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of Fachgespr{\"a}ch Autonome Mobile Systeme
                  {(AMS'98)}},
  year = 1998,
  address = {Karlsruhe, Germany}
}
@inproceedings{Bur98Rea,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Lakemeyer,
                  G. and Schulz, D. and Steiner, W. and Thrun, S. and Cremers,
                  A.B.},
  title = {Real Robots for the Real World --- The \emph{RHINO} Museum
                  Tour-guide Project},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the AAAI 1998 Spring Symposium on Integrating
                  Robotics Research: Taking the Next Leap},
  year = {1998}
}
@incollection{Bur98Ver,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel,
                  D. and Kappel, A.M. and L{\"u}ttring\-haus{-}Kappel, S.},
  title = {{V}erbesserte {B}randfr{\"u}herkennung im
                  {S}teinkohlenbergbau durch {V}orhersage von
                  {CO-K}on\-zen\-tra\-tio\-nen},
  booktitle = {KI Themenheft Data Mining},
  publisher = {ScienTec Publishing GmbH},
  volume = {1},
  year = {1998},
  note = {In German}
}
@article{Bur99Exp,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B. and Fox, D. and H{\"a}hnel,
                  D. and Lakemeyer, G. and Schulz, D. and Steiner, W. and
                  Thrun, S.},
  title = {Experiences with an Interactive Museum Tour-Guide Robot},
  journal = {Artificial Intelligence},
  year = 2000,
  volume = {114},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {3-55}
}
@inproceedings{Bur99Son,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Jans, H. and Matenar, C. and
                  Thrun, S.},
  title = {Sonar-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Mobile Robot Environments
                  Using {EM}},
  year = {1999},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML)}
}
@article{Burgard03Tele,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Trahanias, P. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Moors,
                  M. and Schulz, D. and Baltzakis, H. and Argyros, A.},
  title = {Tele-presence in Populated Exhibitions through Web-operated
                  Mobile Robots},
  journal = {Journal of Autonomous Robots},
  year = {2003},
  volume = 15,
  pages = {299-316}
}
@inproceedings{Burgard90Efficiency,
  author = {Burgard, W.},
  title = {Efficiency Considerations on Goal-Directed Forward Chaining
                  for Logic Programs},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th workshop on Computer Science Logic
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@book{Choset04,
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@inproceedings{Del99Mon,
  author = {Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Monte {C}arlo {L}ocalization for Mobile Robots},
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                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 1999
}
@inproceedings{Del99Usi,
  author = {Dellaert, F. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Using the Condensation Algorithm for Robust, Vision-based
                  Mobile Robot Localization},
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                  Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
  year = 1999
}
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  title = {Proc.~of the first {European} Conference on Mobile Robots
                  (ECMR)},
  year = 2003,
  editor = {Borkowski, A. and Burgard, W. and Zingaretti, P.}
}
@proceedings{EUROBOT99,
  title = {Proc.~of the third {European} Workshop on Advanced Mobile
                  Robots (EUROBOT)},
  editor = {Burgard, W. and Nehmzow, U. and Vestli, S. and Schweizer,
                  G.},
  year = 1999
}
@incollection{Fox00Eff,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Kruppa, H. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Efficient multi-robot localization based on {M}onte {C}arlo
                  approximation},
  booktitle = {Robotics Research: The Ninth International Symposium},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = 2000,
  editor = {Hollerbach, J. and Koditschek, D.},
  address = {London}
}
@incollection{Fox00Par,
  author = {Fox, D. and Thrun, S. and Dellaert, F. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Particle filters for mobile robot localization},
  booktitle = {Sequential {M}onte {C}arlo Methods in Practice},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = 2000,
  editor = {Doucet, A. and de Freitas, N. and Gordon, N.},
  address = {New York}
}
@article{Fox00Pro,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Kruppa, H. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {A Probabilistic Approach to Collaborative Multi-Robot
                  Localization},
  journal = {Autonomous Robots},
  volume = {8},
  number = {3},
  year = 2000
}
@inproceedings{Fox96Con,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Controlling Synchro-drive Robots with the Dynamic Window
                  Approach to Collision Avoidance},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 1996
}
@article{Fox97Dyn,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {The Dynamic Window Approach to Collision Avoidance},
  journal = {IEEE Robotics \& Automation Magazine},
  volume = 4,
  number = 1,
  month = mar,
  year = 1997,
  abstract = { This approach, designed for mobile robots equipped with
                  synchro-drives, is derived directly from the motion dynamics
                  of the robot. In experiments, the dynamic window approach
                  safely controlled the mobile robot RHINO at speeds of up to
                  95 cm/sec, in populated and dynamic environments. },
  keywords = {collision avoidance, mobile robots, reactive motion control,
                  motion dynamics}
}
@article{Fox98Act,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Active {M}arkov Localization for Mobile Robots},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {195-207},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Fox98Hyb,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {A Hybrid Collision Avoidance Method For Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Fox98Pos,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Position Estimation for Mobile Robots in Dynamic
                  Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Fox99Col,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Kruppa, H. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Collaborative Multi-Robot Localization},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the German Conference on Artificial
                  Intelligence (KI), Germany},
  year = 1999,
  publisher = {Springer Verlag}
}
@incollection{Fox99Mar,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Markov Localization for Reliable Robot Navigation and People
                  Detection},
  booktitle = {Modelling and Planning for Sensor-Based Intelligent Robot
                  Systems},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = 1999,
  series = {LNCS}
}
@article{Fox99MarB,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Markov Localization for Mobile Robots in Dynamic
                  Environments},
  journal = {Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR)},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {391-427},
  volume = {11}
}
@inproceedings{Fox99Mon,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Dellaert, F. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Monte {C}arlo {L}ocalization: Efficient Position Estimation
                  for Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = 1999
}
@techreport{Fox99Mul,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Kruppa, H. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {A {M}onte {C}arlo Algorithm for Multi-Robot Localization},
  institution = {Carnegie Mellon University},
  year = 1999,
  number = {CMS-CS-99-120}
}
@inproceedings{Fox99Pro,
  author = {Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Probabilistic Methods for Mobile Robot Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IJCAI-99 Workshop on Adaptive Spatial
                  Representations of Dynamic Environments},
  year = 1999,
  address = {Stockholm, Sweden}
}
@inproceedings{Gut98Exp,
  author = {Gutmann, J.-S. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Konolige, K.},
  title = {An Experimental Comparison of Localization Methods},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Hae98GOL,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Burgard, W. and Lakemeyer, G.},
  title = {{GOLEX} --- Bridging the Gap between Logic ({GOLOG}) and a
                  Real Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the 22nd German Conference on Artificial
                  Intelligence (KI'98)},
  address = {Bremen, Germany},
  year = {1998},
  series = {LNCS},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag}
}
@inproceedings{Haehnel02Mapping,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Schulz, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Map Building with Mobile Robots in Populated Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2002}
}
@article{Haehnel033D,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Burgard, W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Learning compact 3D models of indoor and outdoor
                  environments with a mobile robot},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  volume = 44,
  number = 1,
  year = 2003,
  pages = {15-27}
}
@inproceedings{Haehnel03Dynamic,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Triebel, R. and Burgard, W. and Thrun,
                  S.},
  title = {Map Building with Mobile Robots in Dynamic Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2003}
}
@inproceedings{Haehnel03IJCAI,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Thrun, S. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {An Extension of the {ICP} Algorithm for Modeling Nonrigid
                  Objects with Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Joint Conference on
                  Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
  year = 2003
}
@article{Haehnel03JRSJ,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Schulz, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Mobile Robot Mapping in Populated Environments},
  journal = {Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan (JRSJ)},
  year = 2003,
  number = 17,
  volume = 7,
  pages = {579-598}
}
@proceedings{KI99,
  editor = {Burgard, W. and Christaller, Th. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Proc.~of the 22nd German Conference on Artificial
                  Intelligence (KI)},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  series = {LNCS},
  year = 1999
}
@incollection{Knoll00Robotik,
  author = {Knoll, A. and Burgard, W. and Christaller, Th.},
  title = {Robotik},
  booktitle = {Handbuch der K{\"u}nstlichen Intelligenz},
  publisher = {Oldenbourg},
  year = 2000,
  editor = {G{\"o}rz, G. and Rollinger, C.-R. and Schneeberger, J.},
  note = {In German}
}
@inproceedings{Liu01Us,
  author = {Liu, Y. and Emery, R. and Chakrabarti, D. and Burgard,
                  W. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Using {EM} to Learn 3{D} Models of Indoor Environments with
                  Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML)},
  year = 2001
}
@proceedings{RSS06,
  title = {Proc.~of the Robotics - Science and Systems (RSS)},
  editor = {Sukhatme, G. and Schaal, S. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W.},
  year = {2006}
}
@inproceedings{Roy98Coa,
  author = {Roy, N. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Coastal Navigation: Robot Motion with Uncertainty},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the 1998 AAAI Fall Symposium},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Roy99Coa,
  author = {Roy, N. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {Coastal Navigation: Mobile Robot Navigation with Uncertainty
                  in Dynamic Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 1999
}
@article{Sch00Pro,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Probabilistic State Estimation of Dynamic Objects with a
                  Moving Mobile Robot},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  volume = 34,
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {107-115},
  year = 2001
}
@incollection{Sch00Rob,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {Robust Visualization for Web-based Control of Mobile Robots},
  editor = {Goldberg, K. and Siegwart, R.},
  booktitle = {Robots on the Web: Physical Interaction through the
                  Internet},
  publisher = {MIT-Press},
  year = 2001
}
@article{Sch00Sta,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {State Estimation Techniques for 3D-Visualizations of
                  Web-based Tele-operated Mobile Robots},
  journal = {KI},
  volume = 4,
  year = 2000
}
@inproceedings{Sch99Pro,
  author = {Sch{\"o}nherr, F. and Hertzberg, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Probabilistic Mapping of Unexpected Objects by a Mobile
                  Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Sch99Rob,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Robust Visualization of Navigation Experiments with Mobile
                  Robots over the Internet},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 1999
}
@article{Sch99Web,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Thrun, S. and
                  Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Web Interfaces for Mobile Robots in Public Places},
  journal = {IEEE Robotics \& Automation Magazine},
  year = {2000}
}
@inproceedings{Schulz01Track,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Tracking Multiple Moving Targets with a Mobile Robot using
                  Particle Filters and Statistical Data Association},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2001
}
@inproceedings{Schulz01Tracking,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {Tracking Multiple Moving Objects with a Mobile Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on
                  Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
  year = {2001}
}
@inproceedings{Schulz02Statistical,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Moors, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {A Statistical Approach to Tracking Multiple Moving People
                  with a Mobile Robot and its Application to Improved
                  Tele-Presence},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the VDI-Conference Robotik 2002 (Robotik)},
  year = {2002}
}
@article{Schulz03IJRR,
  author = {Schulz, D. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. Cremers, A.B.},
  title = {People Tracking with a Mobile Robot Using Sample-based Joint
                  Probabilistic Data Association Filters},
  journal = {International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)},
  pages = {99-116},
  year = 2003,
  volume = 22,
  number = 2
}
@inproceedings{Sim00Coo,
  author = {Simmons, R. and Apfelbaum, D. and Burgard, W. and Fox,
                  D. and Moors, M. and Thrun, S. and Younes, H.},
  title = {Coordination for Multi-Robot Exploration and Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = 2000
}
@inproceedings{Thr00Mon,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Monte {C}arlo Localization with Mixture Proposal
                  Distributions},
  year = {2000},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)}
}
@inproceedings{Thr00Rea,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D.},
  title = {A Real-Time Algorithm for Mobile Robot Mapping With
                  Applications to Multi-Robot and 3D Mapping},
  year = {2000},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)}
}
@incollection{Thr98Map,
  author = {Thrun, S. and B\"{u}cken, A. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and
                  Fr\"{o}hlinghaus, T. and Hennig, D. and Hofmann, T. and
                  Krell, M. and Schimdt, T.},
  title = {Map Learning and High-Speed Navigation in \mbox{RHINO}},
  booktitle = {Artificial Intelligence and MobileRobots},
  publisher = {MIT/AAAI Press},
  editor = {Kortenkamp, David and Bonasso, R.P. and Murphy, R.},
  address = {Cambridge, MA},
  year = {1998}
}
@inproceedings{Thr97Sta,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Probabilistic State Estimation in Robotics},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Workshop on Self-Organization of Adaptive
                  Behavior, Ilmenau, Germany },
  year = 1997,
  publisher = {VDI-Verlag}
}
@inproceedings{Thr98Int,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Gutmann, J.-S. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and
                  Kuipers, B.},
  title = {Integrating Topological and Metric Maps for Mobile Robot
                  Navigation: A Statistical Approach },
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = 1998
}
@inproceedings{Thr98ProA,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Probabilistic Mapping of an Environment by a Mobile Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 1998
}
@article{Thr98ProB,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A Probabilistic Approach to Concurrent Mapping and
                  Localization for Mobile Robots},
  journal = {Machine Learning},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {29--53},
  note = {Also appeared in {\em Autonomous Robots} 5, pp. 253--271,
                  joint issue}
}
@inproceedings{Thr99Exp,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers,
                  A.B. and Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and H\"{a}hnel, D. and
                  Rosenberg, C. and Roy, N. and Schulte, J. and Schulz, D. and
                  Steiner, W.},
  title = {Experiences with two deployed interactive tour-guide robots},
  year = {1999},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Conference on Field and Service
                  Robotics (FSR'99)}
}
@inproceedings{Thr99Min,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers,
                  A.B. and Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and H\"{a}hnel, D. and
                  Rosenberg, C. and Roy, N. and Schulte, J. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {{MINERVA}: A second generation mobile tour-guide robot},
  year = {1999},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)}
}
@inproceedings{Thr99MinB,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W. and Cremers,
                  A.B. and Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and H\"{a}hnel, D. and
                  Rosenberg, C. and Roy, N. and Schulte, J. and Schulz, D.},
  title = {{MINERVA}: A tour-guide robot that learns},
  year = {1999},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the German Conference on Artificial
                  Intelligence (KI), Germany},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag}
}
@inproceedings{Thr99Mon,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Langford, J. and Fox, D.},
  title = {Monte {C}arlo Hidden {M}arkov Models: Learning
                  Non-Parametric Models of Partially Observable Stochastic
                  Processes},
  year = {1999},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML)}
}
@article{Thrun00Minerva,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Beetz, M. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard,
                  W. and Cremers, A.B. and Dellaert, F. and Fox, D. and
                  H{\"a}hnel, D. and Rosenberg, C. and Roy, N. and Schulte,
                  J. and Schulz D.},
  title = {Probabilistic Algorithms and the Interactive Museum
                  Tour-Guide Robot {M}inerva},
  journal = {Journal of Robotics Research},
  volume = 19,
  number = 11,
  year = 2000
}
@article{Thrun01Robust,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W. and Dellaert. F.},
  title = {Robust {M}onte-{C}arlo Localization for Mobile Robots},
  journal = {Artificial Intelligence},
  year = 2001,
  volume = {128},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {99-141}
}
@inproceedings{Thrun03ICRA,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Ferguson, D. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and
                  Montemerlo, M. and Triebel, R. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A System for Volumetric Robotic Mapping of Abandoned Mines},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2003
}
@article{Thrun03IEEETRANS,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Martin, C. and Liu, Y. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and
                  Emery Montemerlo, R. and Deepayan, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A Real-Time Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Acquiring
                  Multi-Planar Maps of Indoor Environments with Mobile Robots},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation},
  pages = {433-442},
  year = {2004},
  volume = 20,
  number = 3
}
@inproceedings{Thrun03Mine,
  author = {Thrun, S. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Ferguson, D. and
                  Montemerlo, M. and Triebel, R. and Burgard, W. and Bakery,
                  C. and Omohundory, Z. and Thayery, S. and Whittaker, W.},
  title = {A System for Volumetric Robotic Mapping of Abandoned Mines},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2003}
}
@book{Thrun05,
  author = {Thrun, S. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D.},
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  year = {2005}
}
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  author = {S. Thrun and S. Thayer and W. Whittaker and C. Baker and
                  W. Burgard and D. Ferguson and D. H\"{a}hnel and
                  M. Montemerlo and A. Morris and Z. Omohundro and C. Reverte
                  and W. Whittaker},
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  year = 2005
}
@inproceedings{Trahanias02Interactive,
  author = {Trahanias, P. and Burgard, W. and H{\"a}hnel, D. and Moors,
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  title = {Interactive Tele-presence in Populated Exhibitions through
                  {W}eb-operated Robots},
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                  (ICAR)},
  year = {2003}
}
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  author = {Wolf, J. and Burgard, W. and Burkhardt, H.},
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                  Retrieval (CIVR)},
  year = {2002}
}
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                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2002}
}
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  year = 2005
}
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  title = {TOURBOT and WebFAIR: Web-Operated Mobile Robots for
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  year = {2002}
}
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}
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}
@inproceedings{ferguson03nips,
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                  Whittaker, W. and Whittaker, W. and Burgard, W. and Thrun
                  S.},
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  year = 2003
}
@inproceedings{haehnel01models3d,
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  year = 2001
}
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  title = {Probabilistic Matching for 3D Scan Registration},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the VDI-Conference Robotik 2002 (Robotik)},
  year = {2002}
}
@inproceedings{haehnel03iros,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Thrun, S.},
  title = {A highly efficient {FastSLAM} algorithm for generating
                  cyclic maps of large-scale environments from raw laser range
                  measurements},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2003}
}
@inproceedings{haehnel03isrr,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Thrun, S. and Wegbreit, B. and Burgard,
                  W.},
  title = {Towards Lazy Data Association in {SLAM}},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Int. Symposium of Robotics Research (ISRR)},
  year = {2003}
}
@inproceedings{haehnel04rfid,
  author = {H{\"a}hnel, D. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D. and Fishkin,
                  K. and Philipose, M.},
  title = {Mapping and Localization with {RFID} Technology},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2004
}
@inproceedings{mucientes2006iros,
  title = {Multi-Hypothesis Tracking of Clusters of People},
  author = {Mucientes, M. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2006}
}
@inproceedings{sack04lines,
  author = {Sack, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A Comparison of Methods for Line Extraction from Range Data},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IVAC Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous
                  Vehicles (IAV)},
  year = 2004
}
@inproceedings{veeck04poly,
  author = {Veeck, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Learning Polyline Maps from Range Scan Data Acquired with
                  Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2004
}
@phdthesis{grzonkaPhd,
  author = {Grzonka, Slawomir},
  title = {Mapping, State Estimation, and Navigation for Quadrotors and Human-Worn Sensor Systems},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg},
  year = {2011}
}
@article{grzonka12tro_mvn,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Karwath, A. and Dijoux, F. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {{Activity-based Indoor Mapping and Estimation of Human Trajectories}},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Robotics (T-RO)},
  number = {1},
  month = {2},
  volume = {8},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {234--245}
}
@article{grzonka12tro_quad,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {{A Fully Autonomous Indoor Quadrotor}},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Robotics (T-RO)},
  number = {1},
  month = {2},
  volume = {8},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {90--100}
}
@inproceedings{grzonka11rssws,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Steder, B. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {{3D Place Recognition and Object Detection using a Small-sized Quadrotor}},
  booktitle = {Workshop on 3D Exploration, Mapping, and Surveillance with Aerial Robots at Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2011
}
@article{bouabdallah10irs,
  title = {{Towards Palm-Size Autonomous Helicopters}},
  author = {Bouabdallah, S. and Bermes, C. and Grzonka, S. and Gimkiewicz, C. and Brenzikofer, A. and Hahn, R. and Schafroth, D. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W. and Siegwart, R.},
  journal = {Journal of Intelligent \& Robotic Systems},
  volume = 61,
  issue = {1-4},
  pages = {1--27},
  year = 2011
}
@inproceedings{bouabdallah10uav,
  author = {Bouabdallah, S. and Bermes, C. and Grzonka, S. and Gimkiewicz, C. and Brenzikofer, A. and Hahn, R. and Schafroth, D. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W. and Siegwart, R. },
  title = {Towards Palm-Size Autonomous Helicopters},
  booktitle = {International Conference and Exhibition on Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAV)},
  year = 2010
}
@inproceedings{grzonka10icra,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Dijoux, F. and Karwath, A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Mapping Indoor Environments Based on Human Activity},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Anchorage, Ak, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/grzonka10icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grzonka09icra,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Towards a Navigation System for Autonomous Indoor Flying},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2009},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/grzonka09icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grzonka09ijrr,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Plagemann, C. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Look-ahead Proposals for Robust Grid-based SLAM with Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters},
  booktitle = {International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)},
  year = {2009},
  month = {Feb},
  pages = {191-200},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/grzonka09ijrr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grzonka08simpar,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Autonomous Indoors Navigation using a Small-Size Quadrotor},
  booktitle = {Workshop Proc. of Intl. Conf. on Simulation, Modeling and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR)},
  year = {2008},
  address = {Venice, Italy},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/grzonka08simpar.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grzonka08iros,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Bouabdallah, S. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W. and Siegwart, R.},
  title = {Towards a Fully Autonomous Indoor Helicopter},
  booktitle = {Workshop of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2008},
  address = {Nice, France},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/grzonka08irosWS.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{arras08icra,
  author = {Arras, K. and Grzonka, S. and Luber, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Efficient People Tracking in Laser Range Data using a Multi-Hypothesis Leg-Tracker with Adaptive Occlusion Probabilities},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = {2008},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/arras08icra.pdf}
}
@mastersthesis{grzonka06thesis,
  author = {Grzonka, S.},
  title = {Untersuchungen zur Genauigkeit von SLAM-Verfahren mit Partikel-Filtern},
  school = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  year = {2006},
  note = {In German},
  url = {http://www.slawomir.de/publications/diplomarbeit/Grzonka_Diplomarbeit.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{hess12iros,
  author = {J. Hess and D. Tipaldi and W. Burgard},
  title = {Null Space Optimization for Effective Coverage of 3D Surfaces using Redundant Manipulators},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {1923-1928},
  pages = {1923 -1928},
  abstract = {In this paper we consider the problem of null space minimization in coverage path planning of 3D surfaces for redundant manipulators. Existing coverage solutions only focus on Euclidean cost functions and often return suboptimal paths with respect to the joint space. In the approach described here, we explicitly consider the null space by treating different inverse kinematics solutions as individual nodes in a graph and model the problem as a generalized traveling salesman problem (GTSP). The GTSP is a generalization of the TSP where the nodes of the graph are subdivided into clusters and at least one node in each cluster needs to be visited. We evaluate our approach using a PR2 robot and complex objects. Our results demonstrate that our method outperforms Euclidean coverage algorithms in terms of manipulation effort and completion time.},
  keywords = {Cost function;End effectors;Joints;Kinematics;Surface treatment;},
  doi = {10.1109/IROS.2012.6385960},
  issn = {2153-0858},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/hess12iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{joho12rssws,
  author = {Dominik Joho and Gian Diego Tipaldi and Nikolas Engelhard and Cyrill Stachniss and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Unsupervised Scene Analysis and Reconstruction Using Nonparametric {B}ayesian Models},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the Workshop on Robots in Clutter at Robotics: Science and Systems {(RSS)}},
  year = {2012},
  address = {Sydney, Australia}
}
@article{joho11ras,
  author = {Dominik Joho and Martin Senk and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Learning Search Heuristics for Finding Objects in Structured Environments},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {59},
  number = {5},
  pages = {319--328},
  month = may,
  issn = {0921-8890},
  doi = {10.1016/j.robot.2011.02.012},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/joho11ras.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{joho10icra,
  author = {Dominik Joho and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Searching for Objects: Combining Multiple Cues To Object Locations 
                  Using a Maximum Entropy Model},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the {IEEE} International Conference on Robotics 
                  and Automation {(ICRA)}},
  pages = {723--728},
  month = may,
  year = {2010},
  address = {Anchorage, AK, USA},
  doi = {10.1109/ROBOT.2010.5509285},
  issn = {1050-4729},
  isbn = {978-1-4244-5038-1},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/joho10icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{joho09ecmr,
  author = {Dominik Joho and Martin Senk and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Learning Wayfinding Heuristics Based on Local Information of Object Maps},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Mobile Robots {(ECMR)}},
  pages = {117--122},
  month = sep,
  year = {2009},
  address = {Mlini/Dubrovnik, Croatia},
  isbn = {978-953-6037-54-4},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/joho09ecmr.pdf}
}
@mastersthesis{joho07diplom,
  author = {Dominik Joho},
  title = {{E}xploration f\"{u}r mobile {R}oboter 
                  unter {V}erwendung dreidimensionaler {U}mgebungsmodelle},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-Universit\"{a}t Freiburg},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/joho07diplom.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kretzschmar13alw,
  author = {Henrik Kretzschmar and Markus Kuderer and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Inferring Navigation Policies for Mobile Robots from Demonstrations},
  booktitle = {In Proc.~of the Autonomous Learning Workshop at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2013,
  address = {Karlsruhe, Germany}
}
@inproceedings{beinhofer13icra,
  author = {Maximilian Beinhofer and Henrik Kretzschmar and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Deploying Artificial Landmarks to Foster Data Association in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2013,
  address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kretzsch/pdf/beinhofer13icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kuderer12rss,
  author = {Markus Kuderer and Henrik Kretzschmar and Christoph Sprunk and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Feature-Based Prediction of Trajectories for Socially Compliant Navigation},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2012,
  address = {Sydney, Australia},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kretzsch/pdf/kuderer12rss.pdf}
}
@phdthesis{kuemmerle13phd,
  author = {Rainer K{\"u}mmerle},
  title = {State Estimation and Optimization for Mobile Robot Navigation},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  year = 2013,
  month = {April},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/kuemmerle-dissertation.pdf},
  downloads = {http://www.freidok.uni-freiburg.de/volltexte/8967/ FreiDok},
  abstract = {Robust autonomous navigation is a key feature of a mobile robot realizing
      services such as transportation, cleaning, search and rescue, and
      surveillance. In addition to that, navigation is a building block for a
      robot assisting humans in potentially dangerous situations, such as
      search-and-rescue scenarios. Hence, navigation is one of the major
      research topics in the robotics community.

To realize the above mentioned applications, we need to fulfill certain
requirements, so that a robot is regarded as useful. For example, a robot which
performs pick-and-place tasks or offers guidance in city centers needs to be
aware of its own position in the environment and it needs to have an accurate
model of the environment for planning an appropriate path. A robot which should
guide a human to a certain place or has to deliver goods is only regarded as
helping hand, if the location is reliably reached within the expected time
frame.

Particularly, estimating the state which describes the current situation of the
navigation system is complex. In this thesis, we focus on efficient and
accurate state estimation techniques which apply probabilistic algorithms. An
example for such a state estimation task is the Simultaneous Localization and
Mapping (SLAM) problem, in which a robot has to address both aspects. First, it
needs to estimate what the environment looks like. This is the mapping part
which deals with integrating the information obtained by the sensors of the
robot into an appropriate representation. Second, the localization component
has to estimate the position of the robot with respect to the model of the
environment.

In the first part of this thesis, we present efficient approaches to estimate
the state of the robot while performing SLAM. Our approach allows a robot to
accurately estimate the model of the environment in an online setting and also
in situations when provided with a poor initial guess. Additionally, we provide
an empirical evaluation which demonstrates the advantages of our approach
compared to other state-of-the-art methods. Subsequently, we extend our state
estimation approach to also include the unknown calibration parameters, which
might change during the lifetime of the robot, to incorporate prior information
about the structure of the environment, and to improve the fine-grained details
of the estimated models.

In the second part of this thesis, we demonstrate two challenging applications
which we realized by building upon and extending the algorithms presented in
the first part. In detail, we discuss an approach which allows a car to
autonomously park in a complex multi-level parking garage. As second
application we present a robotic pedestrian assistant which is able to navigate
in densely populated pedestrian zones.

All techniques presented in this thesis have been implemented and tested using
both real-world data collected with mobile robots and simulated data. To
support our claims, we performed an extensive collection of experiments, in
which we compared the performance of our approaches with the state-of-the-art.
We believe that the proposed approaches will allow us in the future to build
systems that can assist humans in their homes and at their workplaces.  }
}
@article{wurm12ras,
  author = {Wurm, K. M. and Kretzschmar, H. and K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Identifying Vegetation from Laser Data in Structured Outdoor Environments},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  volume = {},
  number = {0},
  pages = { - },
  year = {2012},
  note = {In Press},
  issn = {0921-8890},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm13ras.pdf},
  doi = {10.1016/j.robot.2012.10.003}
}
@article{kuemmerle12ar,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Simultaneous Parameter Calibration, Localization, and Mapping},
  journal = {Advanced Robotics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {26},
  number = {17},
  pages = {2021--2041},
  doi = {10.1080/01691864.2012.728694},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle12ar.pdf},
  abstract = {The calibration parameters of a mobile robot play a substantial
    role in navigation tasks. Often these parameters are subject to variations
      that depend either on changes in the environment or on the load of the
      robot.  In this paper, we propose an approach to simultaneously estimate
      a map of the environment, the position of the on-board sensors of the
      robot, and its kinematic parameters. Our method requires no prior
      knowledge about the environment and relies only on a rough initial guess
      of the parameters of the platform. The proposed approach estimates the
      parameters on-line and it is able to adapt to non-stationary changes of
      the configuration. We tested our approach in simulated environments and
      on a wide range of real world data using different types of robotic
      platforms.}
}
@inproceedings{grisetti12iros,
  author = {Grisetti, G. and K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Ni, K.},
  title = {Robust Optimization of Factor Graphs by using Condensed Measurements},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the {IEEE/RSJ} Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2012},
  month = {October},
  address = {Vilamoura, Portugal},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/grisetti12iros.pdf},
  abstract = {  Popular problems in robotics and computer vision like simultaneous
    localization and mapping (SLAM) or structure from motion (SfM) require
    to solve a least-squares problem that can be effectively represented
    by factor graphs.  The chance to find the global minimum of such
    problems depends on both the initial guess and the
    non-linearity of the sensor models.  
    In this paper we propose an approach to determine an approximation
    of the original problem that has a larger convergence basin. To this
    end, we employ a divide-and-conquer approach that exploits the
    structure of the factor graph.  Our approach has been validated on
    real-world and simulated experiments and is able to succeed in
    finding the global minimum in situations where other
    state-of-the-art methods fail.}
}
@inproceedings{ruhnke12icra,
  author = {Ruhnke, M. and K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Highly Accurate 3D Surface Models by Sparse Surface Adjustment},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2012},
  month = {May},
  address = {St. Paul, MN, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/ruhnke12icra.pdf},
  abstract = {  In this paper, we propose an approach to obtain highly accurate 3D
  models from range data. The key idea of our method is to jointly
  optimize the poses of the sensor and the positions of the surface
  points measured with a range scanning device. Our approach applies a
  physical model of the underlying range sensor. To solve the
  optimization task it employs a state-of-the-art graph-based
  optimizer and iteratively refines the structure of the error
  function by recomputing the data associations after each
  optimization.  We present our approach and evaluate it on data
  recorded in different real world environments with a RGBD camera
  and a laser range scanner.  The experimental results demonstrate
  that our method is able to substantially improve the accuracy of 
  SLAM results and that it compares favorable over the moving
  least squares method.}
}
@inproceedings{ruhnke11arso,
  author = {Ruhnke, M. and K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Range Sensor Based Model Construction by Sparse Surface Adjustment},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts (ARSO)},
  year = {2011},
  month = {October},
  address = {Half Moon Bay, CA, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/ruhnke11arso.pdf},
  abstract = {In this paper, we propose an approach to construct highly
  accurate 3D object models from range data. The main advantage of sensor
  based model acquisition compared to manual CAD model construction is the
  short time needed per object. The usual drawbacks of sensor based model
  reconstruction are sensor noise and errors in the sensor positions which
  typically lead to less accurate  models. Our method drastically reduces
  this problem by applying a physical model of the underlying range sensor
  and utilizing a graph-based optimization technique.  We present our
  approach and evaluate it on data recorded in different real world
  environments with an RGBD camera and a laser range scanner.  The
  experimental results demonstrate that our method provides more accurate
  maps than standard SLAM  methods and that it additionally compares
  favorable over the moving least squares method. }
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle11iros,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Simultaneous Calibration, Localization, and Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the {IEEE/RSJ} Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2011},
  month = {September},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle11iros.pdf},
  abstract = {The calibration parameters of a mobile robot play a substantial role
  in navigation tasks. Often these parameters are subject to
  variations that depend either on environmental changes or on the
  wear of the devices.  In this paper, we propose an approach to
  simultaneously estimate a map of the environment, the position of
  the on-board sensors of the robot, and its kinematic parameters. Our
  method requires no prior knowledge about the environment and relies
  only on a rough initial guess of the platform parameters. The
  proposed approach performs on-line estimation of the parameters and
  it is able to adapt to non-stationary changes of the
  configuration. We tested our approach in simulated environments and
  on a wide range of real world data using different types of robotic
  platforms.}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle11icra,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Grisetti, G. and Strasdat, H. and Konolige, K. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {g2o: A General Framework for Graph Optimization},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Shanghai, China},
  month = {May},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle11icra.pdf},
  abstract = {Many popular problems in robotics and computer vision including
  various types of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) or
  bundle adjustment (BA) can be phrased as least squares optimization
  of an error function that can be represented by a graph. This paper
  describes the general structure of such problems and presents g2o,
  an open-source C++ framework for optimizing graph-based nonlinear
  error functions.  Our system has been designed to be easily
  extensible to a wide range of problems and a new problem typically
  can be specified in a few lines of code.  The current implementation
  provides solutions to several variants of SLAM and BA. We provide
  evaluations on a wide range of real-world and simulated
  datasets. The results demonstrate that while being general g2o
  offers a performance comparable to implementations of
  state-of-the-art approaches for the specific problems.},
  downloads = {http://openslam.org/g2o Open source implementation (stable);
    https://github.com/RainerKuemmerle/g2o Open source implementation (devel)}
}
@inproceedings{ruhnke11icra,
  author = {Ruhnke, M. and K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Highly Accurate Maximum Likelihood Laser Mapping by Jointly Optimizing Laser Points and Robot Poses},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Shanghai, China},
  month = {May},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/ruhnke11icra.pdf},
  abstract = {In this paper we describe an algorithm for learning highly accurate
  laser-based maps that treats the overall mapping problem as a joint
  optimization problem over robot poses and laser points.  We assume
  that a laser range finder senses points sampled from a regular
  surface and we utilize an improved likelihood function that accounts
  for two phenomena affecting the laser measurements that are often
  neglected: the conic shape of the laser beam and the incidence
  angle.  To solve the entire problem we apply an optimization
  procedure that jointly adjusts the position of all the robot poses
  and all points in the scans.  As a result, we obtain highly accurate
  maps. We evaluated our approach using simulated and real-world data
  and we show that utilizing the estimated maps greatly improves the
  localization accuracy of robots.  The results furthermore
  suggest that the accuracy of the resulting map can exceed the
  resolution of the laser sensors used.}
}
@inproceedings{konolige10iros,
  author = {K. Konolige and G. Grisetti and R. K{\"u}mmerle and W. Burgard and B. Limketkai and R. Vincent},
  title = {Efficient Sparse Pose Adjustment for 2D Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the {IEEE/RSJ} Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2010},
  month = {October},
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/konolige10iros.pdf},
  abstract = {Pose graphs have become a popular representation
    for solving the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)
    problem. A pose graph is a set of robot poses connected by
    nonlinear constraints obtained from observations of features
    common to nearby poses. Optimizing large pose graphs has
    been a bottleneck for mobile robots, since the computation
    time of direct nonlinear optimization can grow cubically with
    the size of the graph. In this paper, we propose an efficient
    method for constructing and solving the linear subproblem,
    which is the bottleneck of these direct methods. We compare our
    method, called Sparse Pose Adjustment (SPA), with competing
    indirect methods, and show that it outperforms them in terms of
    convergence speed and accuracy. We demonstrate its effectiveness
    on a large set of indoor real-world maps, and a very large
    simulated dataset. Open-source implementations in C++, and the
    datasets, are publicly available.},
  downloads = {http://www.ros.org/research/2010/spa/ 2D Data sets;
              http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/spa-iros.mp4 Movie (6.6 MB)}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle09icra,
  title = {Autonomous Driving in a Multi-level Parking Structure},
  author = {R. K{\"u}mmerle and D. H{\"a}hnel and D. Dolgov and S. Thrun and W. Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  month = {May},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {Recently, the problem of autonomous navigation of automobiles has
      gained substantial interest in the robotics community.  Especially
      during the two recent DARPA grand challenges, autonomous cars have
      been shown to robustly navigate over extended periods of time
      through complex desert courses or through dynamic urban traffic
      environments.  In these tasks, the robots typically relied on GPS
      traces to follow pre-defined trajectories so that only local
      planners were required.  In this paper, we present an approach for
      autonomous navigation of cars in indoor structures such as parking
      garages.  Our approach utilizes multi-level surface maps of the
      corresponding environments to calculate the path of the vehicle and
      to localize it based on laser data in the absence of sufficiently
      accurate GPS information.  It furthermore utilizes a local path
      planner for controlling the vehicle.  In a practical experiment
      carried out with an autonomous car in a real parking garage we
      demonstrate that our approach allows the car to autonomously park
      itself in a large-scale multi-level structure.},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle09icra.pdf},
  downloads = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/stanford-parking-garage-autonomous-double.avi Xvid Avi (9 MB);
  http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/stanford-parking-garage-autonomous-double.wmv WMV (11 MB)},
  pages = {3395--3400}
}
@article{kuemmerle08jfr,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Triebel, R. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Monte Carlo Localization in Outdoor Terrains using Multilevel Surface Maps},
  journal = {Journal of Field Robotics (JFR)},
  year = {2008},
  month = {June - July},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {346--359},
  doi = {10.1002/rob.20245},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle08jfr.pdf},
  abstract = {We propose a novel combination of techniques for robustly
      estimating the position of a mobile robot in outdoor environments using
      range data. Our approach applies a particle filter to estimate the full
      six-dimensional state of the robot and utilizes multilevel surface maps,
      which, in contrast to standard elevation maps, allow the robot to represent
      vertical structures and multiple levels in the environment. We describe
      probabilistic motion and sensor models to calculate the proposal
      distribution and to evaluate the likelihood of observations. We
      furthermore describe an active localization approach that actively
      selects the sensor orientation of the two-dimensional laser range scanner
      to improve the localization results. To efficiently calculate the
      appropriate orientation, we apply a clustering operation on the particles
      and evaluate potential orientations on the basis of these clusters.
      Experimental results obtained with a mobile robot in large-scale outdoor
      environments indicate that our approach yields robust and accurate
      position estimates. The experiments also demonstrate that multilevel
      surface maps lead to a significantly better localization performance than
      standard elevation maps. They additionally show that further accuracy is
      obtained from the active sensing approach.},
  downloads = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/movie_sbahn.avi Xvid Avi (15 MB);
               http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/movie-79er.avi Xvid Avi (19 MB)}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle07ams,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Pfaff, P. and Triebel, R. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Active Monte Carlo Localization in Outdoor Terrains using Multi-Level Surface Maps},
  booktitle = {Fachgespr{\"a}ch Autonome Mobile Systeme (AMS)},
  editor = {Karsten Berns and Tobias Luksch},
  pages = {22--28},
  month = {October},
  year = 2007,
  address = {Kaiserslautern, Germany},
  publisher = {Springer},
  isbn = {978-3-540-74763-5},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle07ams.pdf},
  abstract = {Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of active mobile
      robot localization with range sensors in outdoor environments. In contrast
      to passive approaches our approach actively selects the orientation of
      the laser range finder to improve the localization results. It applies a
      particle filter to estimate the full six- dimensional state of the robot.
      To represent the environment we utilize multi-level surface maps which
      allow the robot to represent vertical structures and multiple levels. To
      efficiently calculate the optimal orientation for the range scanner, we
      apply a clustering operation on the particles and only evaluate potential
      orientations based on these clusters. Experimental results obtained with
      a mobile robot in an outdoor environment indicate that the active control
      of the range sensor leads to more efficient localization results.}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle07fsr,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Triebel, R. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Monte Carlo Localization in Outdoor Terrains using Multi-Level Surface Maps},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics (FSR)},
  year = {2007},
  address = {Chamonix, France},
  abstract = {In this paper we consider the problem of mobile robot localization with
      range sensors in outdoor environments.  Our approach applies a particle
      filter to estimate the full six-dimensional state of the robot.  To
      represent the environment we utilize multi-level surface maps which allow
      the robot to represent vertical structures and multiple levels in the
      environment.  We describe probabilistic motion and sensor models to
      calculate the proposal distribution and to evaluate the likelihood of
      observations.  Experimental results obtained with a mobile robot in an
      outdoor environment indicate that our approach can be used to robustly and
      accurately localize an outdoor vehicle.  The experiments also demonstrate
      that multi-level surface maps lead to a significantly better localization
      performance than standard elevation maps.},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle07fsr.pdf},
  downloads = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/movie_sbahn.avi Xvid Avi (15 MB);
http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~kuemmerl/data/movie-79er.avi Xvid Avi (19 MB)}
}
@inproceedings{lau11ecmr,
  author = {Boris Lau and Christoph Sprunk and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Incremental Updates of Configuration Space Representations for Non-Circular Mobile Robots with 2D, 2.5D, or 3D Obstacle Models},
  booktitle = {European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  year = {2011},
  address = {\"{O}rebro, Sweden},
  pages = {49--54},
  owner = {lau},
  timestamp = {2011.07.11},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/lau11ecmr.pdf}
}
@article{lau10ijsr,
  author = {Boris Lau and Kai O. Arras and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Multi-model Hypothesis Group Tracking and Group Size Estimation},
  journal = {International Journal of Social Robotics, Springer},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {19--30},
  number = {1},
  owner = {lau},
  timestamp = {2010.01.07},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/gq863gk53135u1p4/}
}
@inproceedings{lau09icra,
  author = {Boris Lau and Kai O. Arras and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Tracking Groups of People with a Multi-Model Hypothesis Tracker},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2009},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  owner = {lau},
  timestamp = {2010.01.07},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/lau09icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{lau10iros,
  author = {Boris Lau and Christoph Sprunk and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Improved Updating of Euclidean Distance Maps and {Voronoi} Diagrams},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent
	Robots and Systems},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  owner = {lau},
  timestamp = {2010.08.04},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/lau10iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{lau09iros,
  author = {Boris Lau and Christoph Sprunk and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Kinodynamic Motion Planning for Mobile Robots Using Splines},
  booktitle = {IEEE Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2009},
  address = {St. Louis, MO, USA},
  month = {October},
  owner = {lau},
  timestamp = {2010.01.07},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/lau09iros.pdf}
}
@incollection{arras12star,
  author = {Kai O. Arras and Boris Lau and Slawomir Grzonka and Matthias Luber and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Daniel Meyer-Delius and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Range-Based People Detection and Tracking for Socially Enabled Service Robots},
  booktitle = {Towards Service Robots for Everyday in Environments},
  series = {Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics (STAR)},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {235--280},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = 2012,
  editor = {Erwin Prassler and Rainer Bischoff and Wolfram Burgard and Robert Haschke and Martin H\"{a}gele and Gisbert Lawitzky and Bernhard Nebel and Paul Pl\"{o}ger and Ulrich Reiser and Marius Z\"{o}llner}
}
@comment{{jabref-meta: selector_publisher:}}
@comment{{jabref-meta: selector_author:}}
@comment{{jabref-meta: selector_journal:}}
@comment{{jabref-meta: selector_keywords:}}
@inproceedings{meyer-delius09icra,
  author = {D. Meyer-Delius and C. Plagemann and W. Burgard},
  title = {Probabilistic Situation Recognition for Vehicular Traffic Scenarios},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  year = {2009}
}
@inproceedings{meyer-delius07ecmr,
  author = {D. Meyer-Delius and W. Burgard},
  title = {Maximum-Likelihood Sample-Based Maps for Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  address = {Freiburg, Germany},
  year = {2007}
}
@inproceedings{meyer-delius07gfki,
  author = {D. Meyer-Delius and C. Plagemann and G. von Wichert and W. Feiten and G. Lawitzky and W. Burgard},
  title = {A Probabilistic Relational Model for Characterizing Situations in Dynamic Multi-Agent Systems},
  booktitle = {In Proc.~of the 31th Annual Conference of the German Classification Society on Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications (GFKL)},
  address = {Freiburg, Germany},
  year = {2007}
}
@inproceedings{mueller09icra,
  author = {M\"{u}ller, J. and Rottmann, A. and Reindl, L.M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A Probabilistic Sonar Sensor Model for Robust Localization of a Small-size Blimp in Indoor Environments using a Particle Filter},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  pages = {3589-3594},
  year = 2009,
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  month = {May},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/mueller09icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{mueller10icra,
  author = {M\"{u}ller, J. and Gonsior, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Improved {M}onte {C}arlo Localization of Autonomous Robots through Simultaneous Estimation of Motion Model Parameters},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  pages = {2604-2609},
  year = 2010,
  address = {Anchorage, AK, USA},
  month = {May},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/mueller10icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{beinhofer11icra,
  author = {Beinhofer, M. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Near-optimal Landmark Selection for Mobile Robot Navigation},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  pages = {4744-4749},
  year = {2011},
  address = {Shanghai, China},
  month = {May},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/beinhofer11icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sauer11iolts,
  author = {Sauer, M. and Tomashevich, V. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Lewis, M. and Spilla, A. and Polian, I. and Becker, B. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {An {FPGA}-Based Framework for Run-time Injection and Analysis of Soft Errors in Microprocessors},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium (IOLTS)},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {182-185},
  address = {Athens, Greece},
  month = {July},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/sauer11iolts.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{spilla11tuz,
  author = {Spilla, A. and Polian, I. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Lewis, M. and Tomashevich, V. and Becker, B. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Run-time Soft Error Injection and Testing of a Microprocessor using {FPGAs}.},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop Testmethoden und Zuverlässigkeit von Schaltungen und Systemen (TUZ)},
  year = {2011},
  address = {Passau, Germany},
  month = {February}
}
@inproceedings{beinhofer11ecmr,
  author = {Beinhofer, M. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Landmark Placement for Accurate Mobile Robot Navigation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  pages = {55-60},
  year = {2011},
  address = {{\"O}rebro, Sweden},
  month = {September},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/beinhofer11ecmr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{mueller11iros,
  author = {M\"{u}ller, J. and Kohler, N. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Autonomous Miniature Blimp Navigation with Online Motion Planning and Re-planning},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  pages = {4941-4946},
  year = {2011},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  month = {September},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/mueller11iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{mueller12icra,
  author = {M\"{u}ller, J. and Paul, O. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Probabilistic Velocity Estimation for Autonomous Miniature Airships using Thermal Air Flow Sensors},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  pages = {39-44},
  year = {2012},
  address = {Saint Paul, MN, USA},
  month = {May},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/mueller12icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{hoeflinger12i2mtc,
  author = {H\"{o}flinger, F. and M\"{u}ller, J. and T\"{o}rk, M. and Reindl, L.M. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC)},
  title = {A Wireless Micro Inertial Measurement Unit ({IMU})},
  pages = {2578-2583},
  year = {2012},
  address = {Graz, Austria},
  month = {May},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/hoeflinger12i2mtc.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/I2MTC.2012.6229271}
}
@article{beinhofer13ras,
  author = {Beinhofer, M. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Effective Landmark Placement for Accurate and Reliable Mobile Robot Navigation},
  journal = {Robotics \& Autonomous Systems},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {10.1016/j.robot.2012.08.009},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2012.08.009}
}
@inproceedings{wendeberg12ipin,
  author = {Wendeberg, J. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Schindelhauer, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Robust Tracking of a Mobile Beacon using Time Differences of Arrival with Simultaneous Calibration of Receiver Positions},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN)},
  year = {2012},
  address = {Sydney, Australia},
  month = {November},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wendeberg12ipin.pdf}
}
@article{hoeflinger13tim,
  author = {H\"{o}flinger, F. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Zhang, R. and Burgard, W. and Reindl, L.M.},
  title = {A Wireless Micro Inertial Measurement Unit ({IMU})},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation \& Measurement},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Accepted for publication}
}
@inproceedings{riefert13vts,
  author = {Riefert, A. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Sauer, M. and Burgard, W. and Becker, B.},
  title = {Identification of Critical Variables using an {FPGA}-based Fault Injection Framework},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE VLSI Test Symposium (VTS)},
  year = {2013},
  address = {Berkeley, CA, USA},
  month = {April}
}
@article{mueller13ar,
  author = {M\"{u}ller, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Efficient Probabilistic Localization for Autonomous Indoor Airships using Sonar, Air Flow, and {IMU} Sensors},
  journal = {Advanced Robotics},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {10.1080/01691864.2013.779005},
  pages = {711-724},
  volume = {27},
  number = {9}
}
@inproceedings{riefert13tuz,
  author = {Riefert, A. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Sauer, M. and Burgard, W. and Becker, B.},
  title = {Identification of Critical Variables using an {FPGA}-based Fault Injection Framework},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop Testmethoden und Zuverlässigkeit von Schaltungen und Systemen (TUZ)},
  year = {2013},
  address = {Dresden, Germany},
  month = {February}
}
@inproceedings{meyer13icraws,
  author = {Meyer, J. and Kuderer, M. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Online Marker Labeling for Automatic Skeleton Tracking in Optical Motion Capture},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ICRA Workshop on Computational Techniques in Natural Motion Analysis and Reconstruction},
  year = {2013},
  address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
  month = {May}
}
@techreport{sittel13regression,
  author = {Sittel, F. and M\"{u}ller, J. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Computing Velocities and Accelerations from a Pose Time Sequence in Three-dimensional Space},
  institution = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  number = {272},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/sittel13tr.pdf}
}
@phdthesis{mueller13phd,
  author = {J\"{o}rg M\"{u}ller},
  title = {Autonomous Navigation for Miniature Indoor Airships},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  month = {June},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/mueller13phd.pdf}
}
@phdthesis{mozos2008phd,
  title = {Semantic Place Labeling with Mobile Robots},
  author = {Oscar Martinez Mozos},
  year = {2008},
  month = {July},
  school = {University of Freiburg},
  address = {Freiburg, Germany},
  category = {thesis},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2008phd.pdf}
}
@article{zender2008ras,
  title = {Conceptual Spatial Representations for Indoor Mobile Robots},
  author = {Hendrik Zender and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Patric Jensfelt and  Geert-Jan M. Kruijff and Wolfram Burgard},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  volume = {56},
  number = {6},
  pages = {493--502},
  month = {June},
  year = {2008},
  issn = {0921-8890},
  jcr = {0.832 (2006)},
  position = {4/12 ROBOTICS (2006)},
  doi = {10.1016/j.robot.2008.03.007},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/zender2008ras.pdf},
  category = {journal}
}
@article{stachniss2008amai,
  title = {Efficient Exploration of Unknown Indoor Environments using a Team of Mobile Robots},
  author = {Cyrill Stachniss and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Wolfram Burgard},
  journal = {Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence},
  year = {2008},
  jcr = {0.756 (2007)},
  issn = {1012-2443},
  note = {To appear},
  category = {journal}
}
@inproceedings{pronobis2008icra,
  author = {Pronobis, A. and Martinez Mozos, O. and Caputo, B.},
  title = {{SVM}-based Discriminative Accumulation Scheme for Place Recognition},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation},
  year = {2008},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  month = {May},
  pages = {522--529},
  issn = {1050-4729},
  isbn = {978-1-4244-1647-9},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/pronobis2008icra.pdf},
  category = {conference}
}
@inproceedings{mozos2007iros_workshop,
  title = {From Labels to Semantics: An Integrated System for Conceptual  Spatial Representations of Indoor Environments for Mobile Robots},
  author = {Oscar Martinez Mozos and Patric Jensfelt and Hendrik Zender and Geert-Jan M. Kruijff and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ IROS 2007 Workshop: Semantic information in robotics},
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2007iros_workshop.html},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2007iros_workshop.pdf},
  googlevideo = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2007iros_workshop.html#video},
  category = {workshop}
}
@article{stachniss2007it,
  title = {Efficiently Learning Metric and Topological Maps with Autonomous Service Robots},
  author = {Cyrill Stachniss and Giorgio Grisetti and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Wolfram Burgard},
  journal = {it--Information Technology},
  journallink = {http://it-information-technology.de/},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  year = {2007},
  issn = {1611--2776},
  pages = {232--237},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/stachniss2007it.pdf},
  category = {journal}
}
@inproceedings{zender2007aaai,
  title = {An Integrated Robotic System for Spatial Understanding and Situated Interaction in Indoor Environments},
  author = {Hendrik Zender and Patric Jensfelt and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Geert-Jan M. Kruijff and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference on Artificial Intelligence},
  address = {Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada},
  year = {2007},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/zender2007aaai.pdf},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/zender2007aaai.html},
  googlevideo = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/zender2007aaai.html#video},
  category = {conference}
}
@inproceedings{triebel2007gfkl,
  title = {Relational Learning in Mobile Robotics: An Application to Semantic Labeling of Objects in {2D} and {3D} Environment Maps},
  author = {Rudolph Triebel and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Annual Conference of the German Classification Society on Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications},
  address = {Freiburg, Germany},
  year = {2007},
  category = {conference}
}
@inbook{triebel2007gfkl_b,
  title = {Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization},
  chapter = {Relational Learning in Mobile Robotics: An Application to Semantic Labeling of Objects in {2D} and {3D} Environment Maps},
  author = {Triebel, R. and Mozos, O.M. and Burgard, W.},
  editor = {C. Preisach, H. Burkhardt, L.Schmidt-Thieme, R.Decker},
  year = {2008},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  pages = {293--300},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/triebel2007gfkl_book.pdf},
  category = {book_chapter}
}
@inproceedings{mozos2007icra_workshop,
  title = {From Labels to Semantics: An Integrated System for Conceptual  Spatial Representations of Indoor Environments for Mobile Robots},
  author = {Oscar Martinez Mozos and Patric Jensfelt and Hendrik Zender and Geert-Jan M. Kruijff and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE ICRA Workshop: Semantic information in robotics},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {33--40},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2007icra_workshop.html},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2007icra_workshop.pdf},
  googlevideo = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2007icra_workshop.html#video},
  category = {workshop}
}
@inproceedings{arras2007icra,
  title = {Using Boosted Features for the Detection of People in {2D} Range Data},
  author = {Kai O. Arras and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {3402--3407},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/arras2007icra.html},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/arras2007icra.pdf},
  video = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/multimedia/AdaBoostOffice.avi},
  category = {conference}
}
@inproceedings{triebel2007ijcai,
  title = {Instace-based AMN Classification for Improved Object Recognition in 2D and 3D Laser Range Data},
  author = {Rudolph Triebel and Richard Schmidt and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence},
  pages = {2225--2230},
  address = {Hyderabad, India},
  year = {2007},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/triebel2007ijcai.pdf},
  category = {conference}
}
@inproceedings{mozos2006iros,
  title = {Supervised Learning of Topological Maps using Semantic Information Extracted from Range Data.},
  author = {Oscar Martinez Mozos and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  address = {Beijing, China},
  year = {2006},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2006iros.pdf},
  category = {conference}
}
@inproceedings{gil2006iros,
  title = {Improving Data Association in Rao-Blackwellized visual {SLAM}},
  author = {Arturo Gil and Oscar Reinoso and Wolfram Burgard and Cyrill Stachniss and Oscar Martinez Mozos},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  pages = {2076--2081},
  address = {Beijing, China},
  year = {2006},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/gil2006iros.pdf},
  category = {conference}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss2006icra,
  title = {Speeding-Up Multi-Robot Exploration by Considering Semantic Place Information},
  author = {Cyrill Stachniss and Oscar Martinez Mozos and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation},
  address = {Orlando, FL, USA},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {1692--1697},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/stachniss2006icra.pdf},
  category = {conference}
}
@inbook{mozos2007star,
  title = {Robotics Research: Results of the 12th International Symposium ISRR.},
  author = {Oscar Martinez Mozos and Cyrill Stachniss and Axel Rottmann and Wolfram Burgard},
  chapter = {Using AdaBoost for Place Labeling and Topological Map Building.},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {453--472},
  editor = {Thrun, S. and Brooks, R. and Durrant-Whyte, H.},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany},
  series = {{STAR} Springer tracts in advanced robotics},
  volume = {28},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/mozos2007star.pdf},
  category = {book_chapter}
}
@inproceedings{martinez2005icra,
  title = {Supervised Learning of Places from Range Data using {A}da{B}oost},
  author = {Oscar Martinez Mozos and Cyrill Stachniss and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {1742--1747},
  address = {Barcelona, Spain},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/martinez2005icra.html},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/martinez2005icra.pdf},
  video = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/multimedia/fr079-online-classification.anim.avi},
  finalistbeststudentpaper = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/images/icra05-best-student-paper-finalist.jpg},
  category = {conference}
}
@mastersthesis{martinez2004thesis,
  title = {Supervised Learning of Places from Range Data using AdaBoost},
  author = {Oscar Martinez Mozos},
  school = {University of Freiburg},
  month = {December},
  year = {2004},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/martinez2004thesis.html},
  pdf = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/martinez2004thesis.pdf},
  ps = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~omartine/publications/martinez2004thesis.ps.gz},
  category = {thesis}
}
@inproceedings{pfaff06euros,
  author = {Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W. and Fox, D.},
  title = {Robust Monte-Carlo Localization using Adaptive Likelihood Models},
  editor = {H.I. Christiensen},
  booktitle = {European Robotics Symposium 2006},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany},
  year = 2006,
  volume = {22},
  series = springerstaradvanced,
  pages = {181--194},
  isbn = {3-540-32688-X},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~pfaff/downloads/pfaff06euros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{pfaff05fsr,
  author = {P. Pfaff and W. Burgard},
  title = {An Efficient Extension of Elevation Maps for Outdoor Terrain Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics
	(FSR)},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {165--176},
  address = {Port Douglas, QLD, Australia},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~pfaff/downloads/pfaff_fsr05.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{triebel06iros,
  author = {R. Triebel and P. Pfaff and W. Burgard},
  title = {Multi Level Surface Maps for Outdoor Terrain Mapping and Loop Closing},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2006},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~pfaff/downloads/triebel06iros.pdf}
}
@article{pfaff07ijrr,
  author = {Pfaff, P. and Triebel, R. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {An Efficient Extension to Elevation Maps for Outdoor Terrain Mapping and Loop Closing},
  editor = {P. Corke, and S. Sukkarieh},
  journal = {International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)},
  year = {2007}
}
@inproceedings{plagem07snob,
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Kersting, K. and Pfaff, P.  and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Heteroscedastic Gaussian Process Regression for Modeling Range Sensors in Mobile Robotics},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Learning Workshop (Snowbird)},
  year = {2007},
  address = {San Juan, Puerto Rico}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerl07fsr,
  author = {K\"ummerle, R. and Triebel, R. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Monte Carlo Localization in Outdoor Terrains using Multi-Level
  Surface Maps},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics
	(FSR)},
  year = {2007},
  address = {Chamonix, France}
}
@inproceedings{meyerdelius09icra,
  title = {Probabilistic Situation Recognition and its Application to Vehicular Traffic Situations},
  author = {Daniel Meyer-Delius and Christian Plagemann and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {To act intelligently in dynamic environments, a system must understand the current situation it is involved in at any given time. This requires dealing with temporal context, handling multiple and ambiguous interpretations, and accounting for various sources of uncertainty. In this paper we propose a probabilistic approach to modeling and recognizing situations. We define a situation as a distribution over sequences of states that have some meaningful interpretation.  Each situation is characterized by an individual hidden Markov model that describes the corresponding distribution. In particular, we consider typical traffic scenarios and describe how our framework can be used to model and track different situations while they are evolving. The approach was evaluated experimentally in vehicular traffic scenarios using real and simulated data. The results show that our system is able to recognize and track multiple situation instances in parallel and make sensible decisions between competing hypotheses. Additionally, we show that our models can be used for predicting the position of the tracked vehicles.},
  note = {to appear}
}
@inproceedings{joho09icra,
  title = {Modeling RFID Signal Strength and Tag Detection for Localization and Mapping},
  author = {Dominik Joho and Christian Plagemann and Wolfram Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {In recent years, there has been an increasing interest within the robotics community to investigate if Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology can be utilized for solving localization and mapping problems in the context of mobile robots. We present a novel sensor model which can be utilized for localizing RFID tags and for tracking a mobile agent moving through an RFID-equipped environment. The proposed probabilistic sensor model characterizes the received signal strength indication (RSSI) information as well as the tag detection events to achieve a higher modeling accuracy compared to state-of-the-art models that deal with one of these aspects only. We furthermore propose a method that is able to bootstrap such a sensor model in a fully unsupervised fashion. Real-world experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach also in comparison to existing techniques.},
  note = {to appear}
}
@phdthesis{plagemann08phd,
  author = {Plagemann, C.},
  title = {Gaussian Processes for Flexible Robot Learning},
  school = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  year = 2008,
  month = {December},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann08phd.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann08ecml,
  title = {Nonstationary Gaussian Process Regression using Point Estimates
    of Local Smoothness},
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Kersting, K. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the European Conference on Machine Learning (ECML)},
  address = {Antwerp, Belgium},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {
Gaussian processes using nonstationary covariance functions are a
powerful tool for Bayesian regression with input-dependent
smoothness. A common approach is to model the local smoothness by a
latent process that is integrated over using Markov chain Monte Carlo
approaches. In this paper, we demonstrate that an approximation that
uses the estimated mean of the local smoothness yields good results
and allows one to employ efficient gradient-based optimization
techniques for jointly learning the parameters of the latent and the
observed processes. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and
real-world data, including challenging problems in robotics, show the
relevance and feasibility of our approach.
},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann08ecml.pdf}
}
@proceedings{burgard08ias,
  editor = {Burgard, W. and Dillmann, R. and Plagemann, C. and 
    Vahrenkamp, N.},
  title = {Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent
    Autonomous Systems, Baden-Baden, Germany, July 23-25, 2008},
  booktitle = {IAS},
  publisher = {IOS Press},
  year = {2008},
  isbn = {978-1-58603-887-8}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann08iros,
  title = {Learning Predictive Terrain Models for Legged Robot Locomotion},
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Mischke, S. and Prentice, S. and Kersting, K.
    and Roy, N. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
    Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {Nice, France},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {
Legged robots require the ability to build accurate models of their
environment in order to plan and execute their actions. We present a
novel, probabilistic terrain model based on Gaussian processes that
can be learned and updated efficiently using sparse approximation
techniques. The major benefit of our model is its ability to predict
elevations at unseen locations more reliably than alternative
approaches, while it also yields estimates of the predictive
uncertainties. In particular, our Gaussian process adapts its
covariance to the situation at hand, allowing more accurate inference
of terrain height at points that have not been directly observed. We
show how a conventional motion planner can use the learned terrain
model to to plan a path to a goal location, using a terrain-specific
cost model to accept or reject candidate footholds. In experiments
with a real quadruped robot equipped with a laser range finder, we
demonstrate the usefulness of our approach and discuss its benefits
compared to simpler terrain models such as elevations grids.
},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann08iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{luber08rss,
  title = {Tracking and Classification of Dynamic Objects: An Unsupervised
    Learning Approach},
  author = {Luber, M. and Arras, K. and Plagemann, C. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Zurich, Switzerland},
  year = {2008},
  month = {June},
  optpdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/sturm08rss.pdf},
  optabstract = {}
}
@inproceedings{reiser08robotik,
  title = {Verteilte Software-Entwicklung in der Robotik - ein Integrations- und
    Testframework},
  author = {Reiser, U. and Mies, C. and Plagemann, C.},
  booktitle = {Robotik},
  address = {Munich, Germany},
  year = {2008},
  optmonth = {},
  abstract = {Eine der größten Herausforderungen innerhalb der Robotik ist die Integration vieler, komplexer Hardware- und Softwarekomponenten zu einem robust funktionierenden Gesamtsystem. Neben den zahlreichen wissenschaftlichen Fragestellungen, die auf Systemebene zu lösen sind, hängt der Integrationserfolg insbesondere von der Lösung praktischer Probleme wie dem Zusammenspiel vieler Entwicklungspartner und der typischerweise stark limitierten Verfügbarkeit von Einzelkomponenten ab. Leistungsfähige Hardwarekomponenten, wie beispielsweise Mehrfingergreifer und Leichtbauarme, sind in der Regel Spezialanfertigungen und stehen daher nur wenigen Partnern innerhalb von Projekten zur Verfügung. In diesem Beitrag wird ein neues Integrations- und Testframework zur räumlich verteilten Forschung und Entwicklung an solchen Komponenten und integrierten Systemen vorgestellt. Entwickler können hierbei Beiträge zu einer Technologieplattform leisten, ohne ständigen, direkten Zugang zur Hardware besitzen zu müssen.},
  note = {In German}
}
@inproceedings{pfaff08icra,
  title = {Gaussian Mixture Models for Probabilistic Localization},
  author = {Pfaff, P. and Plagemann, C. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {Range sensors have become popular for mobile robot localization since they directly measure the geometry of the local environment. In situations in which the robot operates close to obstacles or in highly cluttered environments, however, small changes in the pose of the robot can lead to completely different geometries measured by the range sensor. The resulting enormous variances in the likelihood of observations can lead to major problems in probabilistic approaches such as Monte Carlo localization as important hypotheses or particles might get lost which substantially decreases the robustness of such approaches. A common solution is to artificially smooth the likelihood function or to only integrate a small fraction of the measurements. In this paper we present a more fundamental and robust approach which models the likelihood function for single range measurements as a mixture of Gaussians. In practical experiments we compare our approach to previous methods and demonstrate that it provides a substantially more robust localization.},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/pfaff08icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{meyerdelius07gfkl,
  title = {A Probabilistic Relational Model for Characterizing Situations in Dynamic Multi-Agent Systems},
  author = {Meyer-Delius, C. and Plagemann, C. and von~Wichert, G. and Feiten, W. and Lawitzky, G. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society on Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications (GfKl)},
  address = {Freiburg, Germany},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {Artificial systems with a high degree of autonomy require reliable semantic information about the context they operate in. State interpretation, however, is a difficult task. Interpretations may depend on a history of states and there may be more than one valid interpretation. We propose a model for spatio-temporal situations using hidden Markov models based on relational state descriptions, which are extracted from the estimated state of an underlying dynamic system. Our model covers concurrent situations, scenarios with multiple agents, and situations of varying durations. To evaluate the practical usefulness of our model, we apply it to the concrete task of online traffic analysis.},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/meyerdelius07gfkl.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{pfaff07iros,
  title = {Improved Likelihood Models for Probabilistic Localization based on Range Scans},
  author = {Pfaff, P. and Plagemann, C. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
               Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/pfaff07iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grzonka07fsr,
  author = {Grzonka, S. and Plagemann, C. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Look-ahead Proposals for Robust Grid-based SLAM},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics (FSR)},
  year = {2007},
  month = {July},
  address = {Chamonix, France},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/grzonka07fsr.pdf},
  abstract = {Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is one of the classical problems in mobile robotics. The task is to build a map of the environment using on-board sensors while at the same time localizing the robot relative to this map. Rao-Blackwellized particle filters have emerged as a powerful technique for solving the SLAM problem in a wide variety of environments. It is a well-known fact for sampling-based approaches that the choice of the proposal distribution greatly influences the robustness and efficiency achievable by the algorithm. In this paper, we present a significantly improved proposal distribution for grid-based SLAM, which utilizes whole sequences of sensor measurements rather than only the most recent one. We have implemented our system on a real robot and evaluated its performance on standard data sets as well as in hard outdoor settings with few and ambiguous features. Our approach improves the localization accuracy and the map quality. At the same time, it substantially reduces the risk of mapping failures.}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann07rss,
  title = {Gaussian Beam Processes: A Nonparametric Bayesian Measurement Model for Range Finders},
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Kersting, K. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Atlanta, Georgia, USA},
  year = {2007},
  month = {June},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann07rss.pdf},
  abstract = {In probabilistic mobile robotics, the development of measurement models plays a crucial role as it directly influences the efficiency and the robustness of the robot's performance in a great variety of tasks including localization, tracking, and map building. In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic measurement model for range finders, called Gaussian Beam Processes, which treats the measurement modeling task as a nonparametric Bayesian regression problem and solves it using Gaussian processes. The major advantage of our approach lies in the smoothness of the resulting model which appropriately represents correlations between adjacent beams using covariance functions. Moreover, the Gaussian process treatment results in a sound probabilistic measurement model with a pool of well-established techniques for likelihood estimation and range prediction for an arbitrary number of beams. Experiments on real world and synthetic data show that Gaussian Beam Processes combine the advantages of two popular measurement models.}
}
@inproceedings{lang07rss,
  title = {Adaptive Non-Stationary Kernel Regression for Terrain Modeling},
  author = {Lang, T. and Plagemann, C. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Atlanta, Georgia, USA},
  year = {2007},
  month = {June},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/lang07rss.pdf},
  abstract = {Three-dimensional digital terrain models are of fundamental importance in many areas such as the geo-sciences and outdoor robotics. Accurate modeling requires the ability to deal with a varying data density and to balance smoothing against the preservation of discontinuities. The latter is particularly important for robotics applications, as discontinuities that arise, for example, at steps, stairs, or building walls are important features for path planning or terrain segmentation tasks. In this paper, we present an extension of the well-established Gaussian process regression technique, that utilizes non-stationary covariance functions to locally adapt to the structure of the terrain data. In this way, we achieve strong smoothing in flat areas and along edges and at the same time preserve edges and corners. The derived model yields predictive height distributions for arbitrary locations of the terrain and therefore allows us to fill gaps in data and to perform conservative predictions in occluded areas.}
}
@inproceedings{kersting07icml,
  title = {Most Likely Heteroscedastic Gaussian Process Regression},
  author = {Kersting, K. and Plagemann, C. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML)},
  address = {Corvallis, Oregon, USA},
  year = {2007},
  month = {March},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/kersting07icml.pdf},
  abstract = {This paper presents a novel Gaussian process (GP) approach to regression with input-dependent noise rates. We follow Goldberg et al.'s approach and model the noise variance using a second GP in addition to the GP governing the noise-free output value. In contrast to Goldberg et al., however, we do not use a Markov chain Monte Carlo method to approximate the posterior noise variance but a most likely noise approach. The resulting model is easy to implement and can directly be used in combination with various existing extensions of the standard GPs such as sparse approximations. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world data, including a challenging perception problem in robotics, show the effectiveness of most likely heteroscedastic GP regression.}
}
@article{kersting07ar,
  title = {Learning to Transfer Optimal Navigation Policies},
  author = {Kersting, K. and Plagemann, C. and Cocora, A. and Burgard, W. and De Raedt, L.},
  journal = {Advanced Robotics. Special Issue on Imitative Robots},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {21},
  number = {9},
  month = {September},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/kersting07ar.pdf},
  abstract = {Autonomous agents that act in the real world utilizing sensory input greatly rely on the ability to plan their actions and to transfer these skills across tasks. The majority of path planning approaches for mobile robots, however, solve the current navigation problem from scratch given the current and goal configuration of the robot. Consequently, these approaches yield highly efficient plans for the specific situation, but the computed policies typically do not transfer to other, similar tasks. In this paper, we propose to apply techniques from statistical relational learning to the path planning problem. More precisely, we propose to learn relational decision trees as abstract navigation strategies from example paths. Relational abstraction has several interesting and important properties. First, it allows a mobile robot to imitate navigation behavior shown by users or by optimal policies. Second, it yields comprehensible models of behavior. Finally, a navigation policy learned in one environment naturally transfers to unknown environments. In several experiments with real robots and in simulated runs, we demonstrate that our approach yields efficient navigation plans. We show that our system is robust against observation noise and can outperform hand-crafted policies.}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann07snowb,
  title = {Heteroscedastic Gaussian Process Regression for Modeling Range Sensors in Mobile Robotics},
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Kersting, K. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Snowbird learning workshop},
  address = {San Juan, Puerto Rico},
  year = {2007},
  month = {March},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann07snowb.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann07ijcai,
  title = {Efficient Failure Detection on Mobile Robots Using Particle Filters with Gaussian Process Proposals},
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Fox, D. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Twentieth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
  address = {Hyderabad, India},
  year = {2007},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann07ijcai.pdf},
  abstract = {The ability to detect failures and to analyze their causes is one of the preconditions of truly autonomous mobile robots. Especially online failure detection is a complex task, since the effects of failures are typically difficult to model and often resemble the noisy system behavior in a fault-free operational mode. In this paper we present an approach that applies Gaussian process classification and regression techniques for learning highly effective proposal distributions of a particle filter that is applied to track the state of the system.  As a result, the efficiency and robustness of the state estimation process is substantially improved. In practical experiments carried out with a real robot we demonstrate that our system is capable of detecting collisions with unseen obstacles while at the same time estimating the changing point of contact with the obstacle.}
}
@inproceedings{lamon06iros,
  title = {Mapping with an Autonomous Car},
  author = {Lamon, P. and Stachniss, C. and Triebel, R. and Pfaff, P. and Plagemann, C. and Grisetti, G. and Kolsky, S. and Burgard, W. and Siegwart, R.},
  booktitle = {In IEEE/RSJ IROS 2006 Workshop: Safe Navigation in Open and Dynamic Environments},
  address = {Beijing, China},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {In this paper, we present an approach towards mapping and safe navigation in real, large-scale environments with an autonomous car. The goal is to enable the car to autonomously navigate on roads while avoiding obstacles and while simultaneously learning an accurate three-dimensional model of the environment. To achieve these goals, we apply probabilistic state estimation techniques, network-based pose optimization, and a sensor-based traversability analysis approach. In order to achieve fast map learning, our system compresses the sensor data using multi-level surface maps. The overall system runs on a modified Smart car equipped with different types of sensors. We present several results obtained from extensive experiments which illustrate the capabilities of our vehicle.}
}
@article{cocora06ki,
  title = {Learning Relational Navigation Policies},
  author = {Cocora, A. and Kersting, K. and Plagemann, C. and Burgard, W. and De Raedt, L.},
  journal = {KI - K{\"u}nstliche Intelligenz, Themenheft Lernen und Selbstorganisation von Verhalten},
  pages = {12--18},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {3}
}
@inproceedings{cocora06iros,
  title = {Learning Relational Navigation Policies},
  author = {Cocora, A. and Kersting, K. and Plagemann, C. and Burgard, W. and De Raedt, L.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
               Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {Beijing, China},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {Navigation is one of the fundamental tasks for a mobile robot. The majority of path planning approaches has been designed to entirely solve the given problem from scratch given the current and goal configurations of the robot. Although these approaches yield highly efficient plans, the computed policies typically do not transfer to other, similar tasks. We propose to learn relational decision trees as abstract navigation strategies from example paths. Relational abstraction has several interesting and important properties. First, it allows a mobile robot to generalize navigation plans from specific examples provided by users or exploration. Second, the navigation policy learned in one environment can be transferred to unknown environments. In several experiments with real robots in a real environment and in simulated runs, we demonstrate the usefulness
of our approach.},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/cocora06iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann05ams,
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Sequential Parameter Estimation for Fault Diagnosis in Mobile Robots Using Particle Filters.},
  booktitle = {Autonome Mobile Systeme 2005 (AMS)},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {197-202},
  publisher = {Springer}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann05dagm,
  author = {Plagemann, C. and M{\"u}ller, T. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Vision-Based 3D Object Localization Using Probabilistic
               Models of Appearance.},
  booktitle = {Pattern Recognition, 27th DAGM Symposium, Vienna, Austria},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {184-191},
  publisher = {Springer},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {3663},
  editor = {Walter G. Kropatsch and Robert Sablatnig and Allan Hanbury},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann05dagm.pdf}
}
@mastersthesis{plagemann04mastersThesis,
  author = {Plagemann, C.},
  title = {{A}nsichtsbasierte {E}rkennung und {L}okalisierung von {O}bjekten zur {I}nitialisierung eines {V}erfolgungsprozesses},
  school = {University of Karlsruhe, Department of Computer
                  Science and Fraunhofer Institute IITB, Karlsruhe},
  year = 2004,
  note = {In German},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~plagem/bib/plagemann04mastersThesis.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{gil2006icinco,
  author = {Arturo Gil, A. and Reinoso, O. and Fern\'{a}ndez, C. and Asunci\'{o}n
	Vicente, M. and Rottmann, A. and Mart\'{i}nez Mozos, O.},
  title = {Simultaneous localization and mapping in unmodified environments
	using stereo vision},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Int.~Conf.~on Informatics in Control, Automation, and
	Robotics},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {302--309},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~rottmann/publication/gil06icinco.pdf}
}
@article{cornils10,
  author = {Cornils, M. and Rottmann, A. and Paul, O.},
  title = {How to Extract the Sheet Resistance and Hall Mobility From Arbitrarily
	Shaped Planar Four-Terminal Devices With Extended Contacts},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {2087--2097},
  number = {9}
}
@inproceedings{Mueller09icra,
  author = {M\"{u}ller, J. and Rottmann, A. and Reindl, L. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A probabilistic sonar sensor model for robust localization of a small-size
	blimp in indoor environments using a particle filter},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {3589--3594}
}
@inproceedings{mozos2006iros_w,
  author = {Mart\'{i}nez Mozos, O. and Rottmann, A. and Triebel, R. and Jensfelt,
	P. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Semantic Labeling of Places using Information Extracted from Laser
	and Vision Sensor Data},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ IROS 2006 Workshop: From sensors to human spatial
	concepts},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {391--402},
  address = {Beijing, China},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~rottmann/publication/mozos2006iros_w.pdf}
}
@article{mozos2007ras,
  author = {Mart\'{i}nez Mozos, O. and Triebel, R. and Jensfelt, P. and Rottmann,
	A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Supervised semantic labeling of places using information extracted
	from sensor data},
  journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {391--402},
  number = {5},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~rottmann/publication/mozos07ras.pdf}
}
@mastersthesis{rottmann05masterthesis,
  author = {Rottmann, A.},
  title = {Bild- und laserbasierte Klassifikation von Umgebungen mit mobilen
	Robotern},
  school = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  year = {2005},
  note = {In German},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~rottmann/publication/rottmann05mt.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{rottmann10dagm,
  author = {Rottmann, A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Learning Non-stationary System Dynamics Online Using {G}aussian Processes},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the German Association for Pattern Recognition (DAGM)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {192--201}
}
@inproceedings{rottmann09icra,
  author = {Rottmann, A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Adaptive autonomous control using online value iteration with {G}aussian
	processes},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2106--2111}
}
@inproceedings{rottmann07iros,
  author = {Rottmann, A. and Plagemann, C. and Hilgers, P. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Autonomous Blimp Control using Model-free Reinforcement Learning
	in a Continuous State and Action Space},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ Int.~Conf.~on Intelligent Robots and Systems
	(IROS)},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {1895--1900},
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~rottmann/publication/rottmann07iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{rottmann07ecmr,
  author = {Rottmann, A. and Sippel, M. and Zitterell, T. and Burgard, W. and
	Reindl, L. and Scholl, C.},
  title = {Towards an Experimental Autonomous Blimp Platform},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  year = {2007},
  address = {Freiburg, Germany},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~rottmann/publication/rottmann07ecmr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{schopp10sensors,
  author = {Schopp, P. and Rottmann, A. and Klingbeil, L. and Burgard, W. and
	Manoli, Y.},
  title = {Gaussian Process Based State Estimation for a Gyroscope-Free IMU},
  booktitle = {Proc.~ of the IEEE Sensors Conference},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {873--878}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss2005isrr,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and Rottmann, A. and Burgard,
	W.},
  title = {Semantic Labeling of Places},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Int.~Symposium of Robotics Research (ISRR)},
  year = {2005},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~rottmann/publication/stachniss05isrr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sprunk11icra,
  author = {C. Sprunk and B. Lau and P. Pfaff and W. Burgard},
  title = {Online Generation of Kinodynamic Trajectories for Non-Circular Omnidirectional Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2011,
  address = {Shanghai, China},
  month = may,
  pages = {72--77},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/sprunk11icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sprunk12icra,
  author = {C. Sprunk and B. Lau and W. Burgard},
  title = {Improved Non-linear Spline Fitting for Teaching Trajectories to Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2012,
  address = {St. Paul, MN, USA},
  month = may,
  pages = {2068--2073},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/sprunk12icra.pdf}
}
@article{burgard13forschung,
  author = {W. Burgard and  C. Stachniss},
  title = {Gestatten, Obelix!},
  journal = {Forschung -- Das Magazin der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft},
  volume = 1,
  year = 2013,
  note = {In German, invited},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/forschung_2013_01-pg4-9.pdf}
}
@article{hornung13auro,
  author = {A. Hornung and K.M. Wurm and M. Bennewitz  and  C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {{OctoMap}: An Efficient Probabilistic 3D Mapping Framework Based on Octrees},
  journal = {Autonomous Robots},
  year = 2013,
  volume = 34,
  issue = 3,
  pages = {189-206},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/hornung13auro.pdf}
}
@article{maier13ijhr,
  author = {D. Maier and C. Stachniss and M. Bennewitz},
  title = {Vision-Based Humanoid Navigation Using Self-Supervised Obstacle Detection},
  journal = {The Int.~Journal of Humanoid Robotics (IJHR)},
  year = 2013,
  note = {In press},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/maier13ijhr.pdf}
}
@article{wurm13auro,
  author = {K.M. Wurm and C. Dornhege and B. Nebel and W. Burgard and  C. Stachniss},
  title = {Coordinating Heterogeneous Teams of Robots using Temporal Symbolic Planning},
  journal = {Autonomous Robots},
  year = 2013,
  note = {In press},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/wurm13auro.pdf}
}
@article{wurm13ras,
  author = {K.M. Wurm and H. Kretzschmar and R. K{\"u}mmerle and  C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {Identifying Vegetation from Laser Data in Structured Outdoor Environments},
  journal = {Robotics \& Autonomous Systems},
  year = 2013,
  note = {In press},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/wurm13ras.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{abdo13icra,
  author = {N. Abdo and H. Kretzschmar and L. Spinello and C. Stachniss},
  title = {Learning Manipulation Actions from a Few Demonstrations},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
  year = 2013,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/abdo13icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{agarwal13icra,
  author = {P. Agarwal and G.D. Tipaldi and L. Spinello and  C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {Robust Map Optimization using Dynamic Covariance Scaling},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
  year = 2013,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/agarwal13icra.pdf}
}
@book{sc12proceedings,
  editor = {C. Stachniss and K. Schill and D. Uttal},
  title = {Spatial Cognition VIII},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = 2012,
  month = {August}
}
@article{kretzschmar12ijrr,
  author = {H. Kretzschmar and C. Stachniss},
  title = {Information-Theoretic Pose Graph Compression for Laser-based {SLAM}},
  journal = {International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)},
  year = 2012,
  volume = 31,
  issue = 11,
  pages = {1219--1230},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/kretzschmar12ijrr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grisetti12rich,
  author = {G. Grisetti and  L. Iocchi and B. Leibe and V.A. Ziparo and C. Stachniss},
  title = {Digitization of Inaccessible Archeological Sites with Autonomous Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Conf.~on Robotics Innovation for Cultural Heritage},
  year = 2012,
  notes = {Extended abstract}
}
@inproceedings{roewekaemper12iros,
  author = {J. Roewekaemper and C. Sprunk and G.D. Tipaldi and  C. Stachniss and P. Pfaff and W. Burgard},
  title = {On the Position Accuracy of Mobile Robot Localization based on Particle Filters combined with Scan Matching},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2012,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/roewekaemper12iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{spinello12rssws,
  author = {L. Spinello and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {Scene in the Loop: Towards Adaptation-by-Tracking in RGB-D Data},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the RSS Workshop RGB-D: Advanced Reasoning with Depth Cameras},
  year = 2012,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/spinello12rssws.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{abdo12tampra,
  author = {N. Abdo and H. Kretzschmar and C. Stachniss},
  title = {From Low-Level Trajectory Demonstrations to Symbolic Actions for Planning},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the ICAPS Workshop on Combining Task and Motion Planning for Real-World Applications (TAMPRA)},
  year = 2012,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/abdo12tampra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{joho12rss,
  author = {D. Joho and  G.D. Tipaldi and  N. Engelhard and  C. Stachniss and  W. Burgard},
  title = {Nonparametric {B}ayesian Models for Unsupervised Scene Analysis and Reconstruction},
  booktitle = {Proc. of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2012,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/joho12rss.pdf}
}
@article{sturm11jair,
  author = {J. Sturm and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {A Probabilistic Framework for Learning Kinematic Models of Articulated Objects},
  journal = {Journal on Artificial Intelligence Research},
  pages = {477--526},
  volume = 41,
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/sturm11jair.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz11humanoids,
  author = {M. Bennewitz and D. Maier and A. Hornung and C. Stachniss},
  title = {Integrated Perception and Navigation in Complex Indoor Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE-RAS Int.~Conf.~on Humanoid Robots (HUMANOIDS)},
  year = 2011,
  note = {Invited presentation at the workshop on Humanoid service robot navigation in crowded and dynamic environments}
}
@inproceedings{becker11irosws,
  author = {J. Becker and C. Bersch and D. Pangercic and B. Pitzer and T. R\"uhr and B. Sankaran and J. Sturm and C. Stachniss and M. Beetz and W. Burgard},
  title = {Mobile Manipulation of Kitchen Containers},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IROS'11 Workshop on Results, Challenges and Lessons Learned in Advancing Robots with a Common Platform},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/becker11irosws.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle11arso,
  author = {R. K\"ummerle and G. Grisetti and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {Simultaneous Parameter Calibration, Localization, and Mapping for Robust Service Robotics},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts},
  address = {Half-Moon Bay, CA, USA},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/kuemmerle11arso.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle11arso,
  author = {R. K\"ummerle and G. Grisetti and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {Simultaneous Parameter Calibration, Localization, and Mapping for Robust Service Robotics},
  booktitle = {In Proc.~of the IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts},
  address = {Half-Moon Bay, CA, USA},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/kuemmerle11arso.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss11isrr,
  author = {H. Kretzschmar and C. Stachniss},
  title = {Pose Graph Compression for Laser-based {SLAM}},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Int. Symposium of Robotics Research (ISRR)},
  address = {Flagstaff, AZ, USA},
  year = 2011,
  note = {Invited presentation},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss11isrr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kretzschmar11iros,
  author = {H. Kretzschmar and C. Stachniss and G. Grisetti},
  title = {Efficient Information-Theoretic Graph Pruning for Graph-Based {SLAM} with Laser Range Finders},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/kretzschmar11iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{ziegler11iros,
  author = {J. Ziegler and H. Kretzschmar and C. Stachniss
  and G. Grisetti and W. Burgard},
  title = {Accurate Human Motion Capture in Large Areas by Combining IMU- and Laser-based People Tracking},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/ziegler11iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{frank11iros,
  author = {B. Frank and C. Stachniss and N. Abdo and W. Burgard},
  title = {Efficient Motion Planning for Manipulation Robots in Environments with Deformable Objects},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/frank11iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{frank11pamr,
  author = {B. Frank and C. Stachniss and N. Abdo and W. Burgard},
  title = {Using Gaussian Process Regression for Efficient Motion Planning in Environments with Deformable Objects},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the AAAI-11 Workshop on Automated Action Planning for Autonomous Mobile Robots (PAMR)},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/frank11pamr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{maier11icra,
  author = {D. Maier and M. Bennewitz and C. Stachniss},
  title = {Self-supervised Obstacle Detection for Humanoid Navigation Using Monocular Vision and Sparse Laser Data},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Shanghai, China},
  year = 2011,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/maier11icra.pdf}
}
@inbook{asadi11gasbook,
  author = {S. Asadi and M. Reggente and  C. Stachniss and  C. Plagemann and A.J. Lilienthal},
  title = {Intelligent Systems for Machine Olfaction: Tools and Methodologies},
  chapter = {Statistical Gas Distribution Modelling using Kernel Methods},
  publisher = {{IGI} {G}lobal},
  note = {In press}
}
@article{grisetti10titsmag,
  author = {G. Grisetti and R. K{\"u}mmerle and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {A Tutorial on Graph-based {SLAM}},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine},
  year = 2010,
  pages = {31--43},
  volume = 2,
  issue = 4,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti10titsmag.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{burgard10irosws,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Wurm, K.M. and  Bennewitz, M. and Stachniss, C. and  Hornung, A. and Rusu, R.B. and Konolige, K.},
  title = {Modeling the World Around Us: An Efficient 3D Representation for Personal Robotics},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Defining and Solving Realistic Perception Problems in Personal Robotics at the IEEE/RSJ Int.~Conf.~on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  year = 2010
}
@inproceedings{frank10iros,
  title = {Learning the Elasticity Parameters of Deformable Objects with a Manipulation Robot},
  author = {B. Frank  and R. Schmedding and C. Stachniss and M. Teschner and W. Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2010,
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/frank10iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{hornung10erlars,
  author = {A. Hornung and M.Bennewitz and C. Stachniss and H. Strasdat and S. O{\ss}wald and W. Burgard},
  title = {Learning Adaptive Navigation Strategies for Resource-Constrained Systems},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Int.~Workshop on Evolutionary and Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Robot Systems},
  address = {Lisbon, Portugal},
  year = 2010,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/hornung10erlars.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm10rssws,
  author = {J. Sturm and K. Konolige and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {3D Pose Estimation, Tracking and Model Learning of Articulated Objects from Dense Depth Video using Projected Texture Stereo},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Workshop RGB-D: Advanced Reasoning with Depth Cameras at Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Zaragoza, Spain},
  year = 2010,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/sturm10rssws.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{frank10rssws,
  author = {B. Frank  and R. Schmedding and C. Stachniss and M. Teschner and W. Burgard},
  title = {Learning Deformable Object Models for Mobile Robot Path Planning using Depth Cameras and a Manipulation Robot},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Workshop RGB-D: Advanced Reasoning with Depth Cameras at Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Zaragoza, Spain},
  year = 2010,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/frank10rssws.pdf}
}
@article{plagemann10ras,
  title = {A Nonparametric Learning Approach to Range Sensing from Omnidirectional Vision},
  author = {C. Plagemann and C. Stachniss and J. Hess and F. Endres and N. Franklin},
  journal = {Robotics \& Autonomous Systems},
  volume = 58,
  issue = 6,
  pages = {762--772},
  year = 2010
}
@article{kretzschmar10ki,
  title = {Lifelong Map Learning for Graph-based {SLAM} in Static Environments},
  author = {H. Kretzschmar and G. Grisetti and  C. Stachniss},
  journal = {{KI} -- {K}\"unstliche {I}ntelligenz},
  volume = 24,
  issue = 3,
  pages = {199--206},
  year = 2010
}
@inproceedings{grisetti10icra,
  author = {G. Grisetti and R. K{\"u}mmerle and C. Stachniss and U. Frese and C. Hertzberg},
  title = {Hierarchical Optimization on Manifolds for Online 2D and 3D Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Anchorage, Alaska},
  year = 2010,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti10icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{wurm10icraws,
  author = {K.M. Wurm and A. Hornung and M. Bennewitz and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {{OctoMap}: A Probabilistic, Flexible, and Compact {3D} Map Representation for Robotic Systems},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the ICRA 2010 Workshop on Best Practice in 3D Perception and Modeling for Mobile Manipulation},
  year = 2010,
  address = {Anchorage, AK, USA},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/wurm10icraws.pdf}
}
@incollection{mueller10cogsysbook,
  author = {M\"{u}ller, J. and Stachniss, C. and Arras, K.O. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Socially Inspired Motion Planning for Mobile Robots in Populated Environments},
  booktitle = {Cognitive Systems},
  series = {Cognitive Systems Monographs},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = 2010,
  note = {In press}
}
@phdthesis{stachniss09habil,
  author = {C. Stachniss},
  title = {Spatial Modeling and Robot Navigation},
  type = {Habilitation},
  year = 2009,
  school = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss-habil.pdf}
}
@article{grisetti09its,
  author = {Grisetti, G. and Stachniss, C.  and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Non-linear Constraint Network Optimization for Efficient Map Learning},
  journal = {  	 IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 10,
  number = 3,
  pages = {428--439},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti09its.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{endres09rss,
  author = {F. Enders and C. Plagemann  and  Stachniss, C.  and  Burgard, W.},
  title = {Scene Analysis using Latent Dirichlet Allocation},
  booktitle = {Proc. of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Seattle, WA, USA},
  year = 2009,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/endres09rss-draft.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{endres09rssws,
  author = {Endres, F. and Hess, J. and Franklin, N. and Plagemann, C. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Estimating Range Information from Monocular Vision},
  booktitle = {Workshop Regression in Robotics - Approaches and Applications at Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2009,
  address = {Seattle, WA, USA}
}
@inproceedings{sturm09rssws,
  author = {J. Sturm   and Stachniss, C. and V. Predeap and  C. Plagemann  and K. Konolige and  Burgard, W.},
  title = {Towards Understanding Articulated  Objects},
  booktitle = {Workshop Integrating Mobility and Manipulation at Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2009,
  address = {Seattle, WA, USA}
}
@article{stachniss09auro,
  title = {Gas Distribution Modeling using Sparse Gaussian Process Mixtures},
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Plagemann, C. and Lilienthal, A.J.},
  journal = {Autonomous Robots},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 26,
  issue = 2,
  pages = {187ff}
}
@article{stachniss09amai,
  title = {Efficient Exploration of Unknown Indoor Environments using a Team of Mobile Robots},
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Martinez Mozos, O. and Burgard, W.},
  journal = {Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 52,
  issue = 2,
  pages = {205ff}
}
@book{stachniss09springerbook,
  author = {C. Stachniss},
  title = {Robotic Mapping and Exploration},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 55,
  series = {STAR Springer tracts in advanced robotics},
  isbn = {978-3-642-01096-5}
}
@article{wurm09ras,
  title = {Bridging the Gap Between Feature- and Grid-based {SLAM}},
  author = {Wurm, K.M. and Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G.},
  journal = {Robotics \& Autonomous Systems},
  year = {2009}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz09icra,
  author = {M. Bennewitz and  Stachniss, C. and Behnke, S. and  Burgard, W.},
  title = {Utilizing Reflection Properties of Surfaces to Improve Mobile Robot Localization},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  year = 2009
}
@inproceedings{strasdat09icra,
  author = {H. Strasdat and  Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Which Landmark is Useful? Learning Selection Policies for Navigation in Unknown Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  year = 2009
}
@inproceedings{frank09icra,
  author = {B. Frank and C. Stachniss and R. Schmedding  and  W. Burgard and M. Teschner},
  title = {Real-world Robot Navigation amongst Deformable Obstacles},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  year = 2009
}
@inproceedings{kretzschmar08iros,
  author = {Kretzschmar, H. and Stachniss, C. and Plagemann, C. and W. Burgard},
  title = {Estimating Landmark Locations from Geo-Referenced Photographs},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2008,
  address = {Nice, France},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/kretzschmar08iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{pfaff08iros,
  author = {Pfaff, P.  and Stachniss, C. and Plagemann, C. and W. Burgard},
  title = {Efficiently Learning High-dimensional Observation  Models for Monte-Carlo Localization using Gaussian Mixtures},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2008,
  address = {Nice, France},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/pfaff08iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss08rss,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Plagemann, C. and Lilienthal, A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Gas Distribution Modeling using Sparse Gaussian Process Mixture Models},
  booktitle = {Proc. of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2008,
  address = {Zurich, Switzerland},
  note = {To appear},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss08rss.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{mueller08cogsys,
  author = {M\"uller, J. and  Stachniss, C.  and Arras, K.O. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Socially Inspired Motion Planning for Mobile Robots in Populated Environments},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognitive Systems (CogSys)},
  address = {Baden Baden, Germany},
  year = 2008
}
@inproceedings{stachniss08icra,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Bennewitz, M. and Grisetti, G. and Behnke, S. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {How to Learn Accurate Grid Maps with a Humanoid},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = 2008,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss08icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann08icra,
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Endres, F. and Hess, J. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Monocular Range Sensing: A Non-Parametric Learning Approach},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = 2008,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/plagemann08icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grisetti08icra,
  author = {Grisetti, G. and Lordi Rizzini, D. and Stachniss, C. and Olson, E. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Online Constraint Network Optimization for Efficient Maximum Likelihood Map Learning},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = 2008,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti08icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{frank08icra,
  author = {Frank, B. and Becker, M. and Stachniss, C. and Teschner, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Efficient Path Planning for Mobile Robots in Environments with Deformable Objects},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = 2008,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/frank08icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{frank08icraws,
  author = {Frank, B. and Becker, M. and Stachniss, C. and Teschner, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Learning Cost Functions for Mobile Robot Navigation in Environments with Deformable Objects},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Path Planning on Cost Maps at the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = 2008,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/frank08icraws.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{steder08visappws,
  author = {Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Stachniss, C. and  Burgard, W.},
  title = {Learning Visual Maps using Cameras and Inertial Sensors},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Robotic Perception, International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications},
  year = 2008,
  address = {Funchal, Madeira, Portugal},
  note = {To appear}
}
@book{rss07proceedings,
  editor = {Burgard, W. and Brock, O. and Stachniss, C.},
  title = {Robotics: Science and Systems III},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {2008},
  month = {March},
  isbn = {0262524848},
  note = {In press}
}
@incollection{burgard07starbook,
  author = {Burgard, W. and Stachniss, C. and Haehnel, D.},
  editor = {Laugier, C. and Chatila, R.},
  booktitle = {Autonomous Navigation in Dynamic Environments},
  title = {Mobile Robot Map Learning from Range Data in Dynamic Environments},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = 2007,
  volume = {35},
  series = {STAR Springer tracts in advanced robotics}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss07iros,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W. and Roy, N.},
  title = {Evaluation of Gaussian Proposal Distributions for Mapping with Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2007,
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss07iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grisetti07iros,
  author = {Grisetti, G. and Grzonka, S. and  Stachniss, C. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Efficient Estimation of Accurate Maximum Likelihood Maps in 3D},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2007,
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti07iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{pfaff07irosws,
  author = {Pfaff, P. and Kuemmerle, R. and Joho, D. and Stachniss, C. and Triebel, R. and Burgard},
  title = {Navigation in Combined Outdoor and Indoor Environments using Multi-Level Surface Maps},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Safe Navigation in Open and Dynamic Environments at the IEEE/RSJ Int.~Conf.~on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2007,
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/pfaff07irosws.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{joho07ams,
  author = {Joho, D. and Stachniss, C. and Pfaff, P. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Autonomous Exploration for 3D Map Learning},
  booktitle = {Proc.~Fachgespr{\"a}che Autonome Mobile Systeme},
  year = 2007,
  address = {Kaiserslautern, Germany},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/joho07ams.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{strasdat07ams,
  author = {Strasdat, H. and Stachniss, C. and Bennewitz, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Visual Bearing-Only Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Improved Feature Matching},
  booktitle = {Proc.~Fachgespr{\"a}che Autonome Mobile Systeme},
  year = 2007,
  address = {Kaiserslautern, Germany},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/strasdat07ams.pdf}
}
@article{stachniss07it,
  title = {Efficiently Learning Metric and Topological Maps with Autonomous Service Robots},
  author = {Stachniss, C. and  Grisetti, G. and Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and  Burgard, W.},
  journal = {it -- Information Technology},
  editor = {Buss, M. and Lawitzki, G.},
  year = 2007,
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {232--238}
}
@inproceedings{grisetti07rss,
  author = {Grisetti, G. and  Stachniss, C. and Grzonka, S. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {A Tree Parameterization for Efficiently Computing Maximum Likelihood Maps using Gradient Descent},
  booktitle = {Proc. of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2007,
  address = {Atlanta, GA, USA},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti07rss.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{pfaff07icra,
  author = {Pfaff, P. and Triebel, R. and Stachniss, C. and Lamon, P. and
                  Burgard, W. and Siegwart, R.},
  title = {Towards Mapping of Cities},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2007,
  address = {Rome, Italy},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/pfaff07icra.pdf}
}
@incollection{martinez07starbook,
  author = {Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and Stachniss, C. and Rottmann, A. and Burgard, W.},
  editor = {Thrun, S. and Brooks, R. and Durrant-Whyte, H.},
  booktitle = {Robotics Research},
  title = {Using AdaBoost for Place Labelling and Topological Map Building},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = 2007,
  volume = {28},
  series = {STAR Springer tracts in advanced robotics},
  isbn = {978-3-540-48110-2},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/martinez07springer.pdf}
}
@article{grisetti07trans,
  title = {Improved Techniques for Grid Mapping with Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters},
  author = {Grisetti, G. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Robotics},
  year = 2007,
  pages = {34--46},
  volume = {23},
  number = {1},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti07tro.pdf}
}
@article{grisetti07jras,
  title = {Fast and Accurate {SLAM} with Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters},
  author = {Grisetti, G. and Tipaldi, G.D. and Stachniss, C. and
                  Burgard, W. and Nardi, D.},
  journal = {Robotics \& Autonomous Systems},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {30--38},
  volume = {55},
  number = {1},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti07jras.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{meier06sensor,
  author = {Meier, D. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Cooperative Exploration With Multiple Robots Using Low Bandwidth Communication},
  booktitle = {Informationsfusion in der Mess- und Sensortechnik},
  year = 2006,
  pages = {145--157},
  editor = {Beyerer, J.  and Puente Le\'{o}n, F. and Sommer, K.-D.},
  isbn = {3-86644-053-7},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/meier06sensor.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{lamon06smart,
  author = {Lamon, P. and Stachniss, C. and Triebel, R. and Pfaff, P. and Plagemann, C. and 
                  Grisetti, G. and Kolski, S. and Burgard, W. and Siegwart, R.},
  title = {Mapping with an Autonomous Car},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Safe Navigation in Open and Dynamic Environments at the IEEE/RSJ Int.~Conf.~on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2006,
  address = {Beijing, China},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/lamon06iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{gil06iros,
  author = {Gil, A. and Reinoso, O. and Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and Stachniss, C. and
                  Burgard, W.},
  title = {Improving Data Association in Vision-based {SLAM}},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2006,
  address = {Beijing, China}
}
@article{sonntag06endod,
  title = {Determination of Root Canal Curvatures before and
                  after Canal Preparation (Part II): A Method based on
                  Numeric Calculus},
  author = {Sonntag, D. and Stachniss-Carp, S. and Stachniss,
                  C. and Stachniss, V.},
  journal = {Aust Endod J},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {16--25},
  year = {2006},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/sonntag06endod.pdf}
}
@phdthesis{stachniss06phd,
  author = {Stachniss, C.},
  title = {Exploration and Mapping with Mobile Robots},
  school = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer
                  Science},
  year = 2006,
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss06phd.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss06icra,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and
                  Burgard, W.},
  title = {Speeding-Up Multi-Robot Exploration by Considering
                  Semantic Place Information},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2006,
  address = {Orlando, FL, USA},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss06icra.pdf},
  pages = {1692--1697}
}
@inproceedings{grisetti06icra,
  author = {Grisetti, G. and Tipaldi, G.D. and Stachniss, C. and
                  Burgard, W. and Nardi, D.},
  title = {Speeding-Up Rao-Blackwellized {SLAM}},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2006,
  address = {Orlando, FL, USA},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti06icra.pdf},
  pages = {442--447}
}
@inproceedings{plagemann06euros,
  author = {Plagemann, C. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Efficient Failure Detection for Mobile Robots using
                  Mixed-Abstraction Particle Filters},
  editor = {H.I. Christiensen},
  booktitle = {European Robotics Symposium 2006},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany},
  year = 2006,
  volume = {22},
  series = {STAR Springer tracts in advanced robotics},
  pages = {93--107},
  isbn = {3-540-32688-X},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/plagemann06euros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{bennewitz06euros,
  author = {Bennewitz, M. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W. and
                  Behnke, S.},
  editor = {H.I. Christiensen},
  booktitle = {European Robotics Symposium 2006},
  title = {Metric Localization with Scale-Invariant Visual
                  Features using a Single Perspective Camera},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany},
  year = 2006,
  volume = {22},
  series = {STAR Springer tracts in advanced robotics},
  pages = {143--157},
  isbn = {3-540-32688-X},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/bennewitz06euros.pdf}
}
@article{stachniss05ar,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and H\"{a}hnel, D. and Burgard, W. and
                  Grisetti, G.},
  title = {On Actively Closing Loops in Grid-based {FastSLAM}},
  journal = {Advanced Robotics},
  year = 2005,
  volume = {19},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1059--1080},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss05ar.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss05isrr,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and
                  Rottmann, A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Semantic Labeling of Places},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Int. Symposium of Robotics Research (ISRR)},
  year = 2005,
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss05isrr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss05robotics,
  title = {Information Gain-based Exploration Using
                  Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters},
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc. of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  year = 2005,
  address = {Cambridge, MA, USA},
  pages = {65--72},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss05rss.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{meier05ecmr,
  author = {Meier, D. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Coordinating Multiple Robots During Exploration
                  Under Communication With Limited Bandwidth},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  year = 2005,
  pages = {26--31},
  address = {Ancona, Italy},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/meier05ecmr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss05aaai,
  title = {Mobile Robot Mapping and Localization in Non-Static
                  Environments},
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = 2005,
  address = {Pittsburgh, PA, USA},
  pages = {1324--1329},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss05aaai.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{rottmann05aaai,
  title = {Place Classification of Indoor Environments with
                  Mobile Robots using Boosting},
  author = {Rottmann, A. and Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and
                  Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
  year = 2005,
  address = {Pittsburgh, PA, USA},
  pages = {1306--1311},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/rottmann05aaai.pdf}
}
@article{trahaniasWebfair,
  author = {Trahanias, P. and Burgard, W. and Argyros, A. and
                  H\"{a}hnel, D. and Baltzakis, H. and Pfaff, P. and
                  Stachniss, C.},
  title = {{TOURBOT} and {WebFAIR}: Web-Operated Mobile Robots
                  for Tele-Presence in Populated Exhibitions},
  journal = {IEEE Robotics \& Automation Magazine},
  year = 2005,
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {77--89},
  pdfurl = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/100/31383/01458329.pdf?arnumber=1458329}
}
@article{burgard05tro,
  author = {W. Burgard and M. Moors and C. Stachniss and
                  F. Schneider},
  title = {Coordinated Multi-Robot Exploration},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Robotics},
  year = 2005,
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {376--378},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/burgard05tro.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{burgard05snowbird,
  title = {Information Gain-based Exploration Using
                  Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters},
  author = {Burgard, W. and Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G.},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the Learning Workshop (Snowbird)},
  year = 2005,
  address = {Snowbird, UT, USA},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/burgard05snowbird.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss05icra,
  title = {Recovering Particle Diversity in a Rao-Blackwellized
                  Particle Filter for {SLAM} after Actively Closing
                  Loops},
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2005,
  pages = {667--672},
  address = {Barcelona, Spain},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss05icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{martinez05icra,
  title = {Supervised Learning of Places from Range Data using
                  Adaboost},
  author = {Mart\'{i}nez-Mozos, O. and Stachniss, C. and
                  W. Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2005,
  pages = {1742--1747},
  address = {Barcelona, Spain},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/martinez05icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{grisetti05icra,
  title = {Improving Grid-based {SLAM} with Rao-Blackwellized
                  Particle Filters by Adaptive Proposals and Selective
                  Resampling},
  author = {Grisetti, G. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on
                  Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2005,
  pages = {2443--2448},
  address = {Barcelona, Spain},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/grisetti05icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss04soave,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G. and H\"{a}hnel,
                  D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Improved Rao-Blackwellized Mapping by Adaptive
                  Sampling and Active Loop-Closure},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Workshop on Self-Organization of AdaptiVE behavior (SOAVE)},
  year = 2004,
  pages = {1--15},
  address = {Ilmenau, Germany},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss04soave.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss04iros,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and H\"{a}hnel, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Exploration with Active Loop-Closing for {FastSLAM}},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2004,
  pages = {1505--1510},
  address = {Sendai, Japan},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss04iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss03dagstuhl,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and H\"{a}hnel, D. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Grid-based {FastSLAM} and Exploration with Active Loop
                  Closing},
  booktitle = {Online Proc.~of the Dagstuhl Seminar on Robot
                  Navigation (Dagstuhl Seminar~03501)},
  year = 2003,
  address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss03iros,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Mapping and Exploration with Mobile Robots using
                  Coverage Maps},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2003,
  pages = {476--481},
  address = {Las Vegas, NV, USA},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss03iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss03ecmr,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Using Coverage Maps to Represent the Environment of
                  Mobile Robots},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  year = 2003,
  pages = {59--64},
  address = {Radziejowice, Poland},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss03ecmr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss03ijcai,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Exploring Unknown Environments with Mobile Robots
                  using Coverage Maps},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the International Joint Conference on
                  Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
  year = 2003,
  pages = {1127--1132},
  address = {Acapulco, Mexico},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss03ijcai.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{stachniss02iros,
  author = {Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {An Integrated Approach to Goal-directed Obstacle
                  Avoidance under Dynamic Constraints for Dynamic
                  Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2002,
  pages = {508--513},
  address = {Lausanne, Switzerland},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss02iros.pdf}
}
@mastersthesis{stachniss02diplom,
  author = {Stachniss, C.},
  title = {{Z}ielgerichtete {K}ollisionsvermeidung f{\"u}r
                  mobile {R}oboter in dynamischen {U}mgebungen},
  school = {University of Freiburg, Department of Computer
                  Science},
  year = 2002,
  note = {In German},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~stachnis/pdf/stachniss02diplom.pdf}
}
@phdthesis{steder13phd,
  author = {Bastian Steder},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Department of Computer Science},
  title = {Feature-Based 3D Perception for Mobile Robots},
  month = {April},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder13phd.pdf},
  abstract = {Perception is one of the key topics in robotics research. It is about the processing of external sensor data and its interpretation. Strong perceptual abilities are a basic requirement for a robot working in an environment that was not specifically designed for the robot. Such a surrounding might be completely unknown or may change over time, so that a model cannot be provided to the robot a priori. Most people would only judge a robot to be truly intelligent if it perceives its environment, understands what is happening around it and acts accordingly. This is especially important in mobile robotics. A robot that moves through an environment and interacts with it has to know what is going on around it, where it is, where it can go, and where objects necessary for its task are located.
The topic of this thesis is the interpretation of low-level sensor information and its application in high-level tasks, specifically in the area of mobile robotics. We mainly focus on 3D perception, meaning the analysis and interpretation of 3D range scans. This kind of data provides accurate spatial information and is typically not dependent on the light conditions. Spatial information is especially important for navigation tasks, which, by nature, are elementary for mobile platforms. To solve different problems, we extract features from the sensor data, which can then be used efficiently to solve the task at hand. The term “feature” is very broad in this context and means that some useful information is derived from raw data, which is easier to interpret than the original input.
At first, we discuss the benefits of point feature extraction from 3D range scans, meaning the detection of interesting areas and an efficient description of the local data. Such point features are typically employed for similarity measures between chunks of data. We present an approach for point feature extraction and then build on it to create several systems that tackle highly relevant topics of modern robotics. These include the detection of known objects in a 3D scan, the unsupervised creation of object models from a collection of scans, the representation of an environment with a small number of surface primitives, and the ability to find the current position of a robot based on a single 3D scan and a database of already known places. All these problems require an algorithm that detects similar structures in homogeneous sensor data, i.e., to find corresponding areas between 3D range scans. In addition to this, we discuss a system where finding correspondences between heterogeneous data types is relevant. Specifically, we search for corresponding areas in 3D range data and visual images, to determine the position of a robot in an aerial image. Finally, we present a complete robotic system, designed to navigate as a pedestrian in an urban environment. Such a system is built up from a multitude of different modules, whereas high robustness requirements apply to each of them to ensure the reliability of the entire system. Our core contribution to this system is a module that analyzes the low-level sensor data and provides high-level information to the other modules, specifically, it performs a traversability analysis and obstacle detection in 2D and 3D laser data.
We present several innovative algorithms and techniques that advance the state of the art. We use them to build systems that enable us to address complex 3D perception problems, outperforming existing approaches. We evaluate our methods in challenging settings, focusing on realistic applications and using real world data.}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle13icra,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R.  and M. Ruhnke and B. Steder and  C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {A Navigation System for Robots Operating in Crowded Urban Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2013},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle13icra.pdf},
  abstract = {Over the past years, there has been a tremendous progress in the
    area of robot navigation.  Most of the systems developed thus far, however,
    are restricted to indoor scenarios, non-urban outdoor environments, or road
    usage with cars. Urban areas introduce numerous challenges to autonomous
    mobile robots as they are highly complex and in addition to that dynamic.
    In this paper, we present a navigation system for pedestrian-like
    autonomous navigation with mobile robots in city environments. We describe
    different components including a SLAM system for dealing with huge maps of
    city centers, a planning approach for inferring feasible paths taking also
    into account the traversability and type of terrain, and an approach for
    accurate localization in dynamic environments. The navigation system has
    been implemented and tested in several large-scale field tests in which the
    robot Obelix managed to autonomously navigate from our University Campus
    over a 3.3\,km long route to the city center of Freiburg.}
}
@article{ruhnke12desire,
  title = {{3D} Environment Modeling Based on Surface Primitives},
  author = {Ruhnke, M. and Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  journal = {Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments},
  pages = {281--300},
  year = {2012},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin/Heidelberg},
  abstract = {In this chapter we describe an algorithm for constructing a
               compact representation of 3D laser range data. Our approach
               extracts a dictionary of local scans from the scene. The words
               of this dictionary are used to replace recurrent local 3D
               structures, which leads to a substantial compression of the
               entire point cloud.  We optimize our model in terms of
               complexity and accuracy by minimizing the Bayesian information
               criterion (BIC). Experimental evaluations on large real-world
               datasets show that the described method allows robots to
               accurately reconstruct en- vironments with as few as 70 words.
               Furthermore the experiments suggest that the proposed
               representation gives a richer semantic description than pure
               occupancy based representations.}
}
@inproceedings{steder11iros,
  author = {B. Steder and M. Ruhnke and S. Grzonka and W. Burgard},
  title = {Place Recognition in {3D} Scans Using a Combination of Bag of Words and Point Feature based Relative Pose Estimation},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder11iros.pdf},
  abstract = {Place recognition, i.e., the ability to recognize previously seen
              parts of the environment, is one of the fundamental tasks in mobile
              robotics. The wide range of applications of place recognition
              includes localization (determine the initial pose), SLAM (detect
              loop closures), and change detection in dynamic environments. In the
              past, only relatively little work has been carried out to attack
              this problem using 3D range data and the majority of approaches
              focuses on detecting similar structures without estimating relative
              poses.
              In this paper, we present an algorithm based on 3D range
              data that is able to reliably detect previously seen parts of the
              environment and at the same time calculates an accurate
              transformation between the corresponding scan-pairs. Our system uses
              the estimated transformation to evaluate a candidate and in this way
              to more robustly reject false positives for place recognition. We
              present an extensive set of experiments using publicly available
              datasets in which we compare our system to other state-of-the-art
              approaches.}
}
@inproceedings{steder11icra,
  author = {B. Steder and R. B. Rusu and K. Konolige and W. Burgard},
  title = {Point Feature Extraction on {3D} Range Scans Taking into Account Object Boundaries},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder11icra.pdf},
  abstract = {In this paper we address the topic of feature extraction in 3D point
              cloud data for object recognition and pose identification. We present
              a novel interest keypoint extraction method that operates on range
              images generated from arbitrary 3D point clouds, which explicitly
              considers the borders of the objects identified by transitions from
              foreground to background. We furthermore present a feature descriptor
              that takes the same information into account.  We have implemented our
              approach and present rigorous experiments in which we analyze the
              individual components with respect to their repeatability and matching
              capabilities and evaluate the usefulness for point feature based
              object detection methods.}
}
@article{kuemmerle11auro,
  author = {R. K\"ummerle and B. Steder and C. Dornhege and A. Kleiner and G. Grisetti and W. Burgard},
  title = {Large Scale Graph-based {SLAM} using Aerial Images as Prior Information},
  journal = {Journal of Autonomous Robots},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1},
  pages = {25--39},
  year = {2011},
  doi = {10.1007/s10514-010-9204-1},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle11auro.pdf},
  abstract = {The problem of learning a map with a mobile robot has been
    intensively studied in the past and is usually referred to as the
      simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem. However, most
      existing solutions to the SLAM problem learn the maps from scratch and
      have no means for incorporating prior information. In this paper, we
      present a novel SLAM approach that achieves global consistency by
      utilizing publicly accessible aerial photographs as prior information. It
      inserts correspondences found between stereo and three-dimensional range
      data and the aerial images as constraints into a graph-based formulation
      of the SLAM problem. We evaluate our algorithm based on large real-world
      datasets acquired even in mixed in- and outdoor environments by comparing
      the global accuracy with state-of-the-art SLAM approaches and GPS. The
      experimental results demonstrate that the maps acquired with our method
      show increased global consistency.},
  downloads = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10514-010-9204-1 Online Version}
}
@inproceedings{steder10irosws,
  author = {B. Steder and R. B. Rusu and K. Konolige and W. Burgard},
  title = {{NARF}: {3D} Range Image Features for Object Recognition},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Defining and Solving Realistic Perception Problems
               in Personal Robotics at the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on
               Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  abstract = {We present our findings regarding a novel method for interest
               point detection and feature descriptor calculation in 3D range data
               called NARF~(Normal Aligned Radial Feature). The method makes
               explicit use of object boundary information and tries to extract the
               features in areas where the surface is stable but has substantial
               change in the vicinity.},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder10irosws.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{ruhnke10iros,
  author = {Ruhnke, M. and Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W},
  title = {Unsupervised Learning of Compact 3D Models Based on the Detection
               of Recurrent Structures},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2010},
  month = {October},
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  abstract = {In this paper we describe a novel algorithm for constructing a
               compact representation of 3D laser range data. Our approach extracts
               an alphabet of local scans from the scene. The words of this
               alphabet are used to replace recurrent local 3D structures and which
               leads to a substantial compression of the entire point cloud. We
               optimize our model in terms of complexity and accuracy by minimizing
               the Bayesian information criterion (BIC).  Experimental evaluations
               on large real-world data show that our method allows robots to
               accurately reconstruct environments with as few as 70 words.},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/ruhnke10iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{steder10icra,
  author = {Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Robust Place Recognition for {3D} Range Data based on Point Features},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = {2010},
  abstract = {The problem of place recognition appears in different mobile robot
               navigation problems including localization, SLAM, or change
               detection in dynamic environments. Whereas this problem has been
               studied intensively in the context of robot vision, relatively few
               approaches are available for three-dimensional range data.  In this
               paper, we present a novel and robust method for place recognition
               based on range images. Our algorithm matches a given 3D scan against
               a database using point features and scores potential transformations
               by comparing significant points in the scans. A further advantage of
               our approach is that the features allow for a computation of the
               relative transformations between scans which is relevant for
               registration processes. Our approach has been implemented and tested
               on different 3D data sets obtained outdoors. In several experiments we
               demonstrate the advantages of our approach also in comparison to
               existing techniques.},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder10icra.pdf}
}
@article{kuemmerle09auro,
  author = {K\"ummerle, R. and B. Steder and C. Dornhege and M. Ruhnke and G. Grisetti and C. Stachniss and A. Kleiner},
  title = {On Measuring the Accuracy of {SLAM} Algorithms},
  journal = {Journal of Autonomous Robots},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {27},
  number = {4},
  pages = {387--407},
  doi = {10.1007/s10514-009-9155-6},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle09auro.pdf},
  abstract = {In this paper, we address the problem of creating an objective
      benchmark for evaluating SLAM approaches. We propose a framework for
      analyzing the results of a SLAM approach based on a metric for
      measuring the error of the corrected trajectory. This metric uses
      only relative relations between poses and does not rely on a global
      reference frame. This overcomes serious shortcomings of approaches
      using a global reference frame to compute the error.  Our method
      furthermore allows us to compare SLAM approaches that use different
      estimation techniques or different sensor modalities since all
      computations are made based on the corrected trajectory of the
      robot.
      We provide sets of relative relations needed to compute our metric
      for an extensive set of datasets frequently used in the robotics
      community. The relations have been obtained by manually matching
      laser-range observations to avoid the errors caused by matching
      algorithms. Our benchmark framework allows the user to easily analyze
      and objectively compare different SLAM approaches.},
  downloads = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/slamevaluation Evaluation Software and Datasets;
               http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10514-009-9155-6 Online Version}
}
@inproceedings{steder09iros,
  author = {Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Van Loock, M. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Robust On-line Model-based Object Detection from Range Images},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the {IEEE/RSJ} Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {St. Louis, MO, USA},
  month = oct,
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder09iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{burgard09iros,
  author = {W. Burgard and C. Stachniss and G. Grisetti and B. Steder and
               R. K{\"u}mmerle and C. Dornhege and M. Ruhnke and A. Kleiner and
               Juan D. Tard{\'o}s},
  title = {A Comparison of {SLAM} Algorithms Based on a Graph of Relations},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the {IEEE/RSJ} Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  address = {St. Louis, MO, USA},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/burgard09iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{kuemmerle09rss,
  author = {K{\"u}mmerle, R. and Steder, B. and Dornhege, C. and Kleiner, A. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Large Scale Graph-based {SLAM} using Aerial Images as Prior Information},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Seattle, WA, USA},
  month = {June},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/kuemmerle09rss.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{ruhnke09icra,
  author = {Ruhnke, M. and Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Unsupervised Learning of {3D} Object Models from Partial Views},
  year = {2009},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/ruhnke09icra.pdf}
}
@article{steder08tro,
  author = {Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Visual {SLAM} for Flying Vehicles},
  journal = {{IEEE} Transactions on Robotics},
  year = {2008},
  month = {10},
  volume = {24},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1088--1093},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder08tro.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{steder08visapp,
  author = {Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Grzonka, S. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Estimating Consistent Elevation Maps using Down-Looking Cameras and Inertial Sensors},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the Workshop on Robotic Perception on the International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications},
  address = {Funchal, Madeira, Portugal},
  year = {2008},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder08visapp.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{steder07iros,
  author = {Steder, B. and Grisetti, G. and Grzonka, S. and
               Stachniss, C. and Rottmann, A. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Learning Maps in {3D} using Attitude and Noisy Vision Sensors},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2007},
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder07iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{steder07irosws,
  author = {Steder, B. and Rottmann, A. and Grisetti, G. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Autonomous Navigation for Small Flying Vehicles},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicles at the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2007},
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder07irosws.pdf}
}
@mastersthesis{steder07da,
  author = {Steder, Bastian},
  title = {{T}echniken f{\"u}r bildbasiertes {SLAM} unter {V}erwendung von {L}agesensoren},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-Universit{\"a}t},
  address = {Freiburg},
  type = {Diplomarbeit},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/steder07da.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm08icra,
  title = {Unsupervised Body Scheme Learning through Self-Perception},
  author = {J. Sturm and C. Plagemann and W. Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Int.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Pasadena, CA, USA},
  year = {2008},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm08icra.pdf},
  pages = {3328--3333}
}
@inproceedings{sturm08rss,
  title = {Adaptive Body Scheme Models for Robust Robotic Manipulation},
  author = {J. Sturm and C. Plagemann and W. Burgard},
  booktitle = {Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
  address = {Zurich, Switzerland},
  year = {2008},
  month = {June},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm08rss.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm08rss-workshop,
  title = {Body Scheme Learning and Life-Long Adaptation for Robotic Manipulation},
  author = {J. Sturm and C. Plagemann and W. Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Robot Manipulation at Robotics: Science and Systems Conference (RSS)},
  address = {Zurich, Switzerland},
  year = {2008},
  month = {June},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm08rss-workshop.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm09snowbird,
  author = {J. Sturm and C. Stachniss and V. Pradeep and C. Plagemann and K. Konolige and W. Burgard},
  title = {Learning Kinematic Models for Articulated Objects},
  booktitle = {Online Proc. of the Learning Workshop (Snowbird)},
  year = 2009,
  address = {Clearwater, FL, USA}
}
@inproceedings{eppner09icra,
  author = {C. Eppner and J. Sturm and M. Bennewitz and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {Imitation Learning with Generalized Task Descriptions},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2009,
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/eppner09icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{schulz09gwr,
  author = {H. Schulz and L. Ott and J. Sturm and W. Burgard},
  title = {Learning Kinematics from Direct Self-Observation Using Nearest-Neighbor Methods},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the German Workshop on Robotics},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/schulz09gwr.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm09rss-manip,
  author = {J. Sturm and C. Stachniss and V. Pradeep and C. Plagemann and K. Konolige and W. Burgard},
  title = {Towards Understanding Articulated Objects},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the Workshop on Robot Manipulation at Robotics: Science and Systems Conference (RSS)},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm09rss-manip.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm09ijcai,
  author = {J. Sturm and V. Pradeep and C. Stachniss and C. Plagemann and K. Konolige and W. Burgard},
  title = {Learning Kinematic Models for Articulated Objects},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm09ijcai.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{meyer-delius09iros,
  author = {D. Meyer-Delius and J. Sturm and W. Burgard},
  title = {Regression-Based Online Situation Recognition for Vehicular Traffic Scenarios},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the International Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/meyerdelius09iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{schneider09iros,
  author = {A. Schneider and J. Sturm and C. Stachniss and M. Reisert and H. Burkhardt and W. Burgard},
  title = {Object Identification with Tactile Sensors Using Bag-of-Features},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the International Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems (IROS)},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/schneida09iros.pdf}
}
@article{sturm09jp,
  title = {Body schema learning for robotic manipulators from visual self-perception},
  journal = {Journal of Physiology-Paris},
  volume = {103},
  number = {3-5},
  pages = {220--231},
  year = {2009},
  note = {Neurorobotics},
  issn = {0928-4257},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.jphysparis.2009.08.005},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VMC-4WY6JVM-D/2/0aaabe9b7dc9628c8c818fa87c8b56e9},
  author = {J. Sturm and C. Plagemann and W. Burgard}
}
@inproceedings{sturm10icra,
  author = {J. Sturm and K. Konolige and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {Vision-based Detection for Learning Articulation Models of Cabinet Doors and Drawers in Household Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  address = {Anchorage, Alaska},
  year = 2010,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm10icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm10rss-rgbd,
  title = {3D Pose Estimation, Tracking and Model Learning of Articulated Objects from Dense Depth Video using Projected Texture Stereo},
  author = {J. Sturm and K. Konolige and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Reasoning with Depth Cameras at Robotics: Science and Systems Conference (RSS)},
  address = {Zaragoza, Spain},
  year = {2010},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm10rss.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{sturm10iros,
  author = {J. Sturm and A. Jain and C. Stachniss and C. Kemp and W. Burgard},
  title = {Operating Articulated Objects Based on Experience},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems (IROS)},
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  year = 2010,
  url = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~sturm/media/sturm10iros.pdf}
}
@phdthesis{wurm12phd,
  author = {Kai M.~Wurm},
  title = {Techniques for Multi-Robot Coordination and Navigation},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Department of Computer
                  Science},
  year = 2012,
  month = {October},
  pdfurl = {http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~wurm/papers/wurm12phd.pdf},
  url = {http://www.freidok.uni-freiburg.de/volltexte/8774}
}
@inproceedings{cunningham12icra,
  author = {A. Cunningham and K.M. Wurm and W. Burgard and F. Dellaert},
  title = {Fully Distributed Scalable Smoothing and Mapping with Robust Multi-robot Data Association},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2012,
  address = {Saint Paul, MN, USA}
}
@inproceedings{wurm11iros,
  author = {Kai M.~Wurm and Daniel Hennes and Dirk Holz and Radu B. Rusu and Cyrill Stachniss and Kurt Konolige and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Hierarchies of Octrees for Efficient 3D Mapping},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  month = sep,
  year = 2011,
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm11iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{wurm10iros,
  author = {Kai M.~Wurm and Christian Dornhege and Patrick Eyerich and Cyrill Stachniss and Bernhard Nebel and Wolfram Burgard},
  title = {Coordinated Exploration with Marsupial Teams of Robots using Temporal Symbolic Planning},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  month = oct,
  year = 2010,
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm10iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{hornung10iros,
  author = {Armin Hornung and Kai M. Wurm and Maren Bennewitz},
  title = {Humanoid Robot Localization in Complex Indoor Environments},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent 
  Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2010,
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/hornung10iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{wurm10octomap,
  author = {K.M. Wurm and A. Hornung and M. Bennewitz and C. Stachniss and W. Burgard},
  title = {OctoMap: A Probabilistic, Flexible, and Compact 3D Map Representation for Robotic Systems},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the ICRA 2010 Workshop on Best Practice in 3D Perception and Modeling for Mobile Manipulation},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  address = {Anchorage, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm10octomap.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{karg10icra,
  author = {M. Karg and K.M.~Wurm and C. Stachniss and K. Dietmayer and W. Burgard},
  title = {Consistent Mapping of Multistory Buildings by Introducing Global Constraints to Graph-based SLAM},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
  year = 2010,
  month = may,
  address = {Anchorage, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/karg10icra.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{wurm09iros,
  author = {Wurm, K.M. and Kuemmerle, R. and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Improving Robot Navigation in Structured Outdoor Environments by Identifying Vegetation from Laser Data},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent 
  Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2009,
  month = oct,
  address = {St. Louis, MO, USA},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm09iros.pdf}
}
@article{wurm10ras,
  title = {Bridging the Gap Between Feature- and Grid-based SLAM},
  author = {Wurm, K.M. and Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G.},
  journal = {Robotics \& Autonomous Systems},
  volume = {58},
  number = {2},
  pages = {140 - 148},
  year = {2010},
  issn = {0921-8890},
  doi = {10.1016/j.robot.2009.09.009},
  pdfurl = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm10ras.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{wurm08iros,
  author = {K.M. Wurm and Stachniss, C. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Coordinated  Multi-Robot Exploration using a Segmentation of the Environment},
  booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent 
  Robots and Systems (IROS)},
  year = 2008,
  month = sep,
  address = {Nice, France},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm08iros.pdf}
}
@inproceedings{wurm07ecmr,
  author = {Wurm, K. M. and Stachniss, C. and Grisetti, G. and Burgard, W.},
  title = {Improved Simultaneous Localization and Mapping
           using a Dual Representation of the Environment},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
  address = {Freiburg, Germany},
  year = 2007,
  month = sep,
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm07ecmr.pdf}
}
@mastersthesis{wurm07da,
  author = {Wurm, Kai M.},
  title = {Robustes {L}ernen von {U}mgebungskarten durch {I}ntegration verschiedener {R}epr{\"a}sentationen},
  school = {Albert-Ludwigs-Universit{\"a}t},
  address = {Freiburg},
  type = {Diplomarbeit},
  month = {July},
  year = {2007},
  note = {In German},
  url = {http://ais.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publications/papers/wurm07da.pdf}
}